Friday, April 9, 2010

Chapter 18 (Verses 36-78)

(Revision 09 Oct 15 09)
BHAGAVAD GITA(Verses 36-78)

CHAPTER 18 Moksha Sanyasa Yoga (Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation)

Sri Bhagavan said:
18.36 Listen from me, the three types of joy practicing which all sorrows end
18.37 Poison-like at the start, nectar in result, that joy is declared Satvika, where calm intellect gets (focused on) into Atma

18.38 Starts like nectar, from contact with sense objects, poison in result, that joy is Rajasika

18.39 The joy is Tamasika which stupefies one, during its enjoyment of sleep, indolence, obstinate error.

18.36 Lord talks about end of sorrow; We want end of sorrow, but by having rajasika joy or tamasika joy. Even knowing this shloka once is not enough. We need to regularly get into the satvika habit in all our joys and activities. Observe our each joy to find out whether it is rajasik or tamasik
For instance,reading meaning of one chapter of Gita takes 6-10 minutes only. Lord says the end of sorrow can be reached by taking joy in this (18-37).
18.38 you can clearly see thousands around us doing all actions in Rajasika and later in time sorrowing despite all their so called achievements.
18-39 Those who go for uncontrolled sense pleasures end up in problems. Gamblers, spenders, wastrels, addicts, night joys. A few learn after disasters. Rest simply waste their life (they become the recycle matter for Nature).


18.40 There is no being, region of universe or demi-gods who is free from these three gunas
18.41 The karmas of the four varnas have been assigned as per nature-born qualities

There is no escape for anyone from the shackles of gunas.
Someone who thinks of political freedom, as the goal, is also chasing a goal within dream only.
That was meant by Aurobindo's reply, when he was called by Gandhi to join the struggle for political freedom.
With political freedom, we know now, for tens of thousands of years, the poor or rich remain bound by their own gunas.
In other words, the bondage is within the mind, the chains are satva raja tamo gunas.
So the final freedom is to become gunateeta, other freedoms like financial, political, are initial stages and not a must. They give an impression of help to some. Hundreds of saints reached sainthood under oppressive rulers, and most of the time living in poverty

18.42 Subjugation of mind and body, enduring hardships for the discharge of one's sacred obligations, external and internal purity, forgiving the faults of others, straightness of mind, senses and behaviour, belief in the study and teaching of Vedas, scriptures, God and life after death, realization of Truth relating to God, these are the natural duties of a Brahmana(liberation aspirant type)

Brahmana means one who pursues, practices Brahmavidya. Not one who is born to brahmin parents, although over the centuries it has now has come to mean that. But Lord in BG 4-13 makes it clear that it is their gunas and karmas(guna karma vibhagashah) that determine their classification. The many ways of reaching him are not exclusively for any particular caste or any religion. They are for entire humanity, For instance Bhakti yoga (BG12.1-20). In fact, whole of Gita preaches universal brother-sisterhood(BG18-66)
Look at 18-42 and find out who pursues or has these attributes. Those who have or striving towards such attributes are brahmanas
Being born in a caste became an easy way to identify a person. It gave some inherited advantage which needed to be worked upon. Bottom line - the individuals determine their caste by their acts and not by their birth

18.43 Heroism, majesty, firmness, diligence, and dauntlessness in battle, bestowing gifts, and lordliness,all these constitute natural duties of a Kshatriya

18.44 Agriculture, cow protection, business, natural for vaishyas. Service is the natural duty of sudras

18.45 Devoted to natural duty one attains highest perfection. Hear how one devoted to his inborn duty reaches the highest perfection(god realization)
18.46 From whom all beings come into being, and by whom this whole universe is pervaded, by worshipping HIM through the performance of his own natural duties, man attains the highest perfection

18.47 One's own duty leads to 'shreyas' (ultimate good which is Realization) even though defective than other's duties even if well performed. Doing the duty according to his nature, he does not get disturbed.
18.48 One should not give up duty, though defective. All duties are defective in some way, just like fire covered by smoke.
18.49 He whose intellect is disinterested everywhere, who has won over his senses and mind, unattached, with renunciation reaches the consummation of actionlessness.

This verse(18.46) is pregnant with meaning. It in fact explains the futility of all quarrels on Varnas and duties allotted to them. Everyone has equal chance to reach the Lord. Varna does not in anyway confer superiority, nor speed, nor priority to attain liberation. The classical and commonly mistaken notion is Brahmanas are superior to all the varnas. In the sense they were the custodians at one time of shastras and the knowledge of realization. Similarly the warrior class by their possession of wealth, kingdom, supreme power remained rich. They arrogated themselves superior power over other castes. Business class controlled finance and business. They too exercised power over the fourth caste. The service class for no fault of theirs remained downtrodden, just like physically weak gender, females.

Lord is saying in 100% clear terms that anyone, male or female, of any varna, poor or rich, learned in vedas or not, literate or illiterate, king or sweeper, President or peon, billionaire or pauper, all have same chance, same priority, same speed to reach HIM. This very moment, requiring no possession, not even lifting one's finger, one can reach HIM. All HE wants is our willingness -a decision, wanting only HIM, to the exclusion of every thing in the world. For this great Renunciation, there is no need to lift a finger, nor to have any possession, nor it takes more than a nano second. It wants us to decide and stick to that decision

This shloka nails all ambition, status, possession, education, high caste pride, vedic knowledge etc.

Two postulates which cannot be denied. Firstly all creation has come from HIM. Secondly, HE pervades this entire universe everywhere to the micro nano, atomic level. Corollary of the second one is that HE alone exists since there is no place or material where he does not exist.

When HE alone exists, everywhere, in everything, how can there be something really superior to something else of HIS ?
This superiority of caste concept is a creation of ego and it is an outcome of ego which has nothing else to feel superior. The really superior has no need for any claims and generally they do not claim also. Respect is commanded and not demanded or usurped. Moreover, there should be really no intrinsic difference between gold and iron, since Lord is equally present everywhere, and he himself has become gold and iron. Each metal has a role to play. When we say gold is superior, what we mean is gold is in shortage and is hence more expensive. but we cannot live without iron

How can one duty be superior to another duty. For all duties (even though we are ignorant of it) are done for HIM - by HIM, through us, and happening by HIS will. Thus the Lord in His infinite mercy and sense of equality has made all beings equal, and Equal to HIM too(although difficult for us to comprehend). Thus when we see the Great Director, producer, performer, audience, critic, and the admirers all are ONE and only ONE

Our material world's concept of superiority and inferiority becomes meaningless once we see HIM every nano second, HIM only everywhere and in everything. I want to be a Brahmana and not a Sudra, in the material world looks fine. But a Sudra devoted to his duty becomes superior to a arrogant Vedic scholar, a Brahmana who has fallen from his brahminical duties (present day claimants by birth). The great saints like Raghavendra Swami accepted sudra disciple and Ramanujacharya ate and discussed spiritual matters with his sudra friend, despite protests from the brahmins of those times.

Paramacharya in his book on Hindu Dharma a collection of his pravachans says that when brahmins started taking up bread earning jobs, they usurped the position of the other varnas and thus brought their downfall. Scriptures tell us it is the Great efflux of Time that brings the downfall of all dharmas.

Clearly, for a seeker of Lord, looking for status, wealth, possessions, or nourishing worldly ambition, is in either ignorance or forgetfulness of Lord's universal presence and ignorance of worshipping HIM where we are, with what we have.

QN: How come an illiterate and ignorant villager or a laborer can know the Lord when he is inaccessible to great vedic scholars of high birth and who do tapas ?

ANS:Anyone chanting any name of the Lord continuously, will develop love for HIM, and his desires will all get evaporated leaving no trace, so says Saint Brahma Chaitanya Gondavlekar Maharaj. With that love for the Lord, he will automatically see Lord in doing his daily duties, he sees that Lord Himself (and not he) is the Karta of all his duties, his mind and intellect filled with Lord and HIS Name; all sins, ignorance, impurities are burnt away with the Knowledge of the Lord. Such a saint (BG 5-17) is presumed to have the highest knowledge(education). Shehnai Ustad Bismilla Khan was only 2nd std and he was awarded the Bharatha Ratna which can be considered as the acme of recognition for any highest educational achievement. The mind and heart need to be filled constantly with Lord's shehnai, so that one could be a Bhakta Ratna and does not need anymore knowledge of shastras. That's why Narada Bhakti sutras say 'Vedaani sanyasyati'. such a person gives up his vedica knowledge. A realized soul has no more use for Vedas(BG 2.42-44). As you go for higher education, you drop out all the learner which is not required


18.50 Know from me briefly, man having attained actionlessness, which is the highest consummation of Jnanayoga, reaches the Brahman.

18.51 With pure intellect, controlled and regulated oneself, given up sound and other sense objects, passion and hatred,
18.52 Living in a solitary place, eating less and satvika food, having controlled mind speech and body, devoted daily to dhyanayoga, taken recourse to vairagya,
18.53 Having given up,egotism, violence, arrogance, lust, anger and possessions, devoid of feeling of I and mine, peaceful, becomes qualified for Brahmic bliss.

18.54 Established in identity with Brahman, cheerful, the yogi neither grieves nor craves for anything. Same to all beings, such a yogi attains supreme devotion(undivided thoughts) to ME.
18.55 Through such bhakti (undivided focus) he comes to know me in reality, who I am and what I am. Knowing me truly he forthwith merges into MY being.
18.56 Even though performing all actions, depending on ME, attains by MY grace the eternal, imperishable state.
18.57 Mentally dedicating all your actions to ME, taking recourse to Buddhiyoga (intellect ever soaked in thoughts of Lord) let your mind be always on ME

Yogic practice which is step by step, is recommended for one who is immersed in worldly matters.
First purify the mind and intellect (sama, dama, uparati, titiksha etc)
Everything that is said above, is vital in different degrees. (in Verse 18-52) most vital is 100% vairagya, rest may or may not be there, next is dhyanayoga. Rest of the rules are for worldly people, as starters, who cannot achieve vairagya. Begin at least these as starters.
In 18-53 all regulations are for worldly people who are beginners in the field. All the rules show they are for ' I am the body ' ignorant people. Once that ignorance is not there, even if sometimes for brief moments the shortcomings make their appearance, the knowledge is not lost. Eventually the Jnani will get stabilised in jnan.
18-56,57 the Jnani once having attained to total vairagya and dhyanayoga, he is to be taken as realized (BG5.26-28), even if there are seeming lapses in other requirements which are essentially for beginner-sadhakas.
JNANA : Jnana is basic knowledge of the Lord. We generally confuse jnana for the length of the beard, or for ochre dress, danda, or for pravachans. Jnana is in living(BG 13.7-11)
BHAKTI: (BG12.1-20)The real meaning of Bhakti is the feeling (almost an anguish) of separation from the Lord, Also loving the Lord with an unbroken thought process. Further the love should be only to Lord and not to anything of this or next world. There are so many charlatans who masquerade as bhaktas, can't help. Dress, Tilak, Malas, harikathas. Other groups are stage bhajan singers who sing for a fee. Similary those who sing to please audience, get wah wahs, appearing, of course, in devotees dress. There is another type who are mistakenly called bhaktas. These bhakti geet singers have a very good voice which sends audience into raptures of bhakti. It is vital for us to know bhakti is not at all easy, as it is made out to be. Do read BG 12.1-20 and find out which of the qualities of Bhakta I have.
One clue, ask yourself the qns, do I love anything in the world? do I have any desire? Am I attached to .....person....or thing....? You will find how difficult is bhakti and yet so simple. It requires you to do only one thing: Renounce the whole world ! (BG 6-2; BG 18-66,46-49,...)


18.58 With your mind devoted to ME, you shall overcome by MY grace, all impossibilities (difficulties). But if from self conceit you do not care to listen to ME, you will be lost.
18.59 If you, with ego, say you do not want to fight, this resolve will be in vain, nature will drive you to act.
18.60 That action too, which you are not willing to undertake through ignorance, you will perforce perform, bound by your duty born of your nature.

The eternal problem, the one enemy, ego; MY EGO, ever growing, never want to submit even to Lord if he comes in person; but HIS photo or Vigraha is fine since it doesn't clash with MY EGO. This is our problem.
Now why not surrender to a known person? Never; we have already seen so many defects in him or her. This is where the importance of accepting a living, approachable Guru comes in.
An unwilling wife or husband, unwilling children, unwilling students, unwilling and striking teachers, unwilling office goers esp where their jobs are secure, how can they perform their duty? Hence the thri-karana, mind, mouth and hands all need to work in unison to come out with best for us and to others

18.61 Ishwar abides in the hearts of all creatures causing them to revolve according to their karma by HIS illusive power(Maya) as though mounted on a machine.
18.62 Take refuge in HIM alone with all your being. By HIS mere grace you will attain supreme peace and eternal abode.

18.63 Thus has this wisdom, the most profound secret of all secret knowledge, been imparted to you by ME; deeply pondering over it , now do as you like


18.61 Lord is residing as atma in all creatures(BG10-20). The power that revolves us is Maya which again consists of three gunas. Satwa, Rajas and Tamas(BG14.1-27)
18.62. taking refuge with all your being is invariably mistaken as beseeching the lord in all humility to fulfil our never ending worldly needs. That is only the first step, from where no one seems to go forward. with all your being is giving to HIM our minds, intellect, feelings, wants, needs everything. In short we live a choice less existence in HIM, for HIM
18.63 Deeply ponder he says to us on what he has told now. The more we ponder we get different facets of the secret.

18.64 Hear again, MY supremely profound words, the most esoteric of all truths; as you are extreme; you are dear to me. I shall give you this salutary advice for your good.
18.65 Give your mind to ME. be devoted to ME, worship ME, and bow to ME. You will come to ME alone. Truly I promise you, for you are dear to ME.
18.66 Resigning all your duties to ME, the all powerful and and supporting Lord, take refuge in ME alone. I shall absolve you of all the sins. worry not.

18.66. Swami Chinmayanandaji's favourite verse always quoted in the mission centre in some places. The verse is capable of magnificent unfolding of meaning par excellence.
Duties are a yoke and a burden to be abandoned with Jnan, another way to do this is to (but before jnan) start offering the fruits and duties to Lord.(Yo karmaani sanyasyati- Narada Bhakti sutra)
Taking refuge in the Lord, is to leave results to HIM, leave even the allocation of work to him, leave relationship with others to HIM, (giving up at a later date, when you have given up the world itself) study of vedas, scriptures(Viveka chudamani, Panchadashi, Narada Bhakti sutra). Some will give up all rituals, pujas, but do not first give up the worldly attachments. They keep what they want of the world as 'my duties'. Such people need to ponder on Lord's words and come out of the hypocrisy

18.67 This should never be imparted to one without austerity, or devotion, or one who is unwilling to hear or one who finds fault with ME.

This may be interpreted in two ways. To go on finding out who has austerity, devotion and who finds fault with HIM. You can hardly find a person this way. The right way is to know this world has two kinds of people (BG16). Sajjanas(those with divine attributes) and durjanas( those with demoniac attributes). Naturally a large majority is in the first category good people. Go ahead like Ramanuja, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and other acharyas and great Saints in particular told these secrets(BG 18-66) to whomsoever willing to hear. Here the assumption is all good people are to some extent austere and have devotion to Lord.

18.68 This profound secret gospel one who preaches to my devotees, (thus) offering highest love to ME shall doubtless come to ME alone.
18.69 Among men there is none who does a loving service than he. nor shall anyone be dearer to ME on earth.
18.70 Whosoever studies this sacred dialogue of ours, I shall be worshipped by him with Yajna of Knowledge.
18.71 Who listens with reverence, free from malice, is liberated from sin, reaches the propitious world of the virtuous

Those giving pravachans, harikathas, distributing gita so that some day people might read, satsangh conductors, satsangh attendees, all come under this group of devotees dear to the Lord.
18.69 Clearly tells us whom the Lord likes most. That's the loving service to HIM, he says. Why should we not distribute Gita, freely to each one who wants it. Why we should ask money for that? Most hands that are collecting money will again beget greed and associated problems. Can we distribute it free? do we have that sort of resources? Lord will say that should not be our worry. It is like Gandhiji's Sabarmathi Ashram. Last minute someone came and gave the required amount to run it. Can we give to all? Again do our best; others will join and run the world. All noble deeds will inspire others to pitch in and join.
18.70. All satsanghis fall into this category. Together we learn fast and in good company, encouraging one another. Research has proved, what the Rigveda said Be together, speak with one voice, let your minds be united. By all means have satsangh. All other religions have satsanghs in their prayers except Hindus. Somewhere along the line centuries ago, they lost track of this. Look at the beautiful way muslims pray all together, and the great Christians saying their mass together, just like what is said 5000yrs ago in Rigveda, "sangachchadwam, samvadadwam, samvomanaasi janasi" (Be together, speak with one voice, and let your minds be one -your hearts beat as one !) If you want to listen to the beauty of the Muslim prayer attend their mosque nearby and pray with them. Their prayer will only inspire you For they say Lord is Great. If you want to get totally floored by the Christian prayer go to any church and listen to their mass and you will be as inspired by their togetherness. We rationalize our divisiveness and fissiperous tendencies and even glorify it. We need to change. Pick up what is good everywhere which is also there in your own highest scripture.
18.71, If we listen with reverence, we eschew our smartness and consequent prejudices and pseudo intellectualism. Understand ego mixed up with intellect is a disease which destroys faith and creates endless, unsatisfiable doubts. This is why reverence is essential. Reverence can come only with faith. Faith comes when intellect is not used self-destructively. A

18.72 Have you heard this attentively? Has your delusion born of ignorance been destroyed?
18.73 By your grace, my delusion has been destroyed. Gained wisdom. Free from all doubt. I will do your bidding.
18.74 Sanjaya said, thus I heard mysterious and thrilling conversation between Lord Krsna and Arjuna
18.75 By Vyasa's grace and divine vision, heard the supreme yoga by yogeshwara imparting to Arjuna
18.76 Recalling repeatedly, sacred and mystic conversation between Sri Krsna and Arjuna. I am thrilled again and again.
18.77 Remembering also again and again, that most bwonderful form of Lord, great is my wonder; thrilled again and again.
18.78 Wherever there is Bhagavan Sri Krsna, Lord of yoga and Arjuna the wielder of bow Gandiva, goodness, victory, glory, and unfailing righteousness will surely be there. Such is my conviction.

18.72 Right knowledge as given by the Lord removes ignorance. With the removal of ignorance its shadow called delusion also goes.
18.73 The one who has wisdom as given by Lord, doubts have to vanish. So far as doubts remain, 100% commitment to duty cannot remain
18.78 Note the present tense used here. Wherever Lord IS there and his disciple Arjuna Equipped with weapons, Victory and unfailing righteousness IS there. The Lord is ever in the present. The listeners, You and I, are also ever present in our times, weapons means the punitive laws, laws with teeth, laws that cannot be hood winked, laws that command and rule for the benefit of majority, for benefit of democracy, laws that secure the welfare of all and not focused on one individual - that is righteousness and there the victory lies.
Look at the laws of USA and China, one is democracy and the other is communist-democracy; See the progress in both countries. See laws and the contempt people have for laws, and judicial system, the enormous delays to make the people forget the well published crimes committed and regular purposeful botch up of cases to let off the criminals off the hook, all in the name of individual freedom and democracy. Actually individuals are the ones suffering all sorts of unrighteousness by hooligans and state.
Clearly the principle enunciated 18.78 is practiced in China, USA, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Singapore despite having different political systems in each of them. However, track their record for the welfare of maximum number of people, record on roti, kapda, makaan where as we are focusing on Roti-srikhand, Kanjivaram silk, duplex-flat or Villa all for some. For the rest of 600Mn unclean Pavement Inc. 'Righteous means' calls for immediate implementation of righteousness, justice, welfare.
Clearly there is a job for each of us who are otherwise well off. Read daily Gita and other scriptures to keep the spiritual batteries charged.(there is a separate document on Lifetime reading plan). Have satsangh weekly once or more. Live a simple life without waste, luxury, lavishness. That waste can be used for the food, water and clothes of destitute far away. Donate such and other savings to reputed, well known Spiritual missions (R K math, Chinmaya Mission, Divine Life society, Advaita Ashrama, India Now Foundation) which serve mankind in some way. These missions if they ignite character or nobility in students, or create men of character to instill nobility in others they need to be supported.
The education what we have in cities, big towns only focuses on selfishness. Other than Tatas, Infosys in particular Narayana and Sudha Murtys, and a few minuscule minority, millions of educated IAS, IPS, IFS,IIM, IIT, Doon school have remained to make themselves affluent, some opulent at the expense of society. Same thing holds true of almost all the famous film stars, national award singers, artists. Notable exceptions being Nana Patekar, Rajanikant, Hema Malini. Clearly, this is not education. It is learning to aggrandize society and use all means to make huge sections of society destitute at their expense(citi builders) (BG 16.7-19)
Lord's message is till you are fully illumined, have no desires and have dispensed the world from your memory mind and heart - till such time be useful to the world. No choice in this.

Chapter 18 (Versus 1-35)

(Revision 08 Sep 25 09)
BHAGAVAD GITA (Verses 1-35 )

CHAPTER 18 Moksha Sanyasa Yoga (Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation)
Sri Bhagavan said:


18. 1 Arjuna asks: " I would like to know the inner principle of Renunciation and Sanyasa
18. 2 The Lord says: The wise understand sanyasa as giving up desire prompted actions, and renunciation as giving up fruit of all actions.
18. 3 Some say actions contain defects hence need to be given up. Others say that acts of sacrifice, charity, austerity should not be given up.
18. 4 Here my conclusion on renunciation:It is said to be of three kinds (Satvik, Rajasik and Tamasik)
18. 5 Sacrifice, Charity and Austerity are not be given up. They purify men

These verses are for worldly people. Those who are sanyasis (those taken to nivratti path) generally give up all desire prompted actions, and also give up fruit of any mandatory actions they do for their mere survival
The 3 kinds of Renunciation(Verse 18.4) are applicable to the worldly people (those on pravratti path). The entire chapter, shows us the need to take to Satvik renunciation which alone gives the platform from which liberation can take place. Pure anthah-karana(inner instruments mind, intellect) is pre requisite for liberation.
Actions should not be given up. The exception to this are Avadhutas who have renounced the world from their consciousness (BG 3-18, BG18-17). Those other realized souls who have kept the world in their consciousness for the purposes of functioning in the world, they act as shreshtas to lead ignorant(BG 3-22 )
For majority of non realized souls with high satvik mind, yajna, dana, tapa etc are to purify their minds, develop in them the vairagya or renunciation and eventual realization which dawns on them when they have 100% satva. Satva is not only a quality, it is also Knowledge, clarity of perception, experience of bliss, a cessation of all desires, a combination of sama dama, uparati, titiksha, shraddha,samadhana, mumuksatwa, Vairagya, samadhi.
Since Satvika mode is absolutely essential, the entire chapter divides our nature, behaviour etc into three modes and points out to us clearly what is satvika way thinking , doing, behaving, enjoying etc.
The study of Rajasika and Tamasika natures below is to guide us to eschew those traits from us and wish, will, pray for Satvika mode only all the time.
The ciritcism of psuedo intellectuals, educated ignoramsus is to bring home the point that, modern education does not teach the Ultimate.

18. 6 These and other acts of duty need to be done giving up fruits and attachment

18. 7 Prescribed duties should not be renounced. Renouncing in ignorance is Tamasika
18. 8 Renouncing for fear of physical strain, thinking them painful, is Rajasika renunication, does not get fruit of tyaga.
18. 9 Performing prescribed work, as a duty, giving up attachment and fruit, is alone the Satvika form of Tyaga

We are duty bound! Duty has bound us and there is no escape. So, do duty the satvika way
In day to day matters when we want to avoid work, just introspect to find whether it is your duty. Do it without grumbling and happily.
Without attachment means disintersted in work, but not in any uninterested way

18.10 Not disliking unpleasant work, nor attached to pleasant work, imbued with goodness, his doubts resolved, is intelligent and person of true renunciation.
18.11 One in body cannot cannot entirely give up all actions, one who gives up fruit of actions is Tyagi

In verse 18.10, two words akushala and kushala work are given. We invariably like and dislike some works. Every body wants to be a manager director, pujari, chief, assistant to PM. These places you can have power, position and order people around. The boss has ears only for you. Who wants to work in a lessor position where no one meets you. He is intelligent in the spiritual sense who remains unattached to work that is materially important, but keeps his mind on satvik way of working. If I am not chief, I don't play - not in spiritual matters. and yet there are swamis and pravachankars, who will not give up their chair, despite age, infirmity, and being out of date!
Now a days when most of the ladies are also bread earners, it becomes the duty of their husband to do equal amount of work at home. However, males make use of prehistoric law of Manu and shastras to make ladies work at home. Some even make their wives get up at 4 am to prepare fresh meals every day because the Lord need to be offered fresh food, without realizing that HE sent the refrigerator to reduce the burdon on the ladies. On the other hand shastras mention stree-dhanam(earnings of a lady) should not be touched, but we make use of it. and on the days of her manstrual cycle, you still expect her to cook and serve you. This is like the temples where despite electric tubelights we still have those poisonous carbon monoxide and dioxide throwing firelamps because shastras mention lighting the lamps. But mercedes for pontifs was not mentioned in shastras, why we use them?
In short, daily observe yourself where you are slipping because it is convenient for you. With all good intentions you are torturing your spouse, and servents who are under your protection. To protect, and treat them fairly is your duty.

18.12 Agreeable, disagreeable, and mixed is the threefold fruit of actions after death for those who do not renounce. But none for those who have renounced all fruits.

18.13 Five factors have been mentioned in Sankhya, for the accomplishment of all actions. Know them from ME.
18.14 The body,the doer, the organs of different kinds, varieties of different functions, and destiny here is fifth one. 18.15 These five are the causes of actions, good or bad, which man performs with his body mind and speech.

18.16 One who wrongly sees soul as the only doer is of perverse understanding.

If soul is the doer, we should never have had ego problems. In fact, all our problems with people seem to be ego related.

18.17 One free from sense of doer ship, intellect detached, even if he kills these worlds, he is not bound

If one understands this verse, one has understood principle of karma. The karma world operates infallibly. Wrong or right whatever one does gets the reward in this world or the next. In such a world justice is always done by karmic laws. It is only when you do not agree to see the worlds of rebirth, the problem of seeming injustice appears to the ignorant and the adamant non-believer. Centuries ago, the pseudo intellectuals of those times did not believe that earth was moving round the sun, and that a flying machine(aeroplane) was a possibility.
The adamant attitude comes because of resistance to change, lack of knowledge and a feeling that our intellect can grasp and understand everything in this world. Let's see whether anyone can explain how such a huge mass of earth remains for millions of years circles round the sun that too elliptical. What is really gravity, electricity? Go to the root of these and you will find all explanations to-date are like saying really nothing. We have simply accepted their explanations, for we have been brainwashed to believe anything that comes from scientists.
Once we know that ahimsa relates to only this dimension called waking world, it loses its sting.
What happens to the victims of violence, say animals? who does justice to the 10 billion land animals who are slaughtered each year for satisfying our taste buds. Retribution by karmic laws take place. The eater now becomes the eaten and the eaten becomes the slaughterer. You may prevent for a while world wars, but hatred, violence, terrorism all born of selfishness cannot be eliminated.
Once people are convinced of the truth of Karmic law, people as a rule will have fear of consequences and are likely to walk on the path of good behaviour.
We have not given rights for animals to live their life. We have eliminated tigers and other species by our greed. We are excavating the earth of its super-precious and never replaceable resources and using them worse than wastrels. To such uncivilized, obnoxious, merciless, mercenaries should the Nature or Lord be merciful to them?
If one does not have selfish motive and no sense of doer-ship, his whatever job he does is immaterial.

18.18 Knower, Knowledge, and object of Knowledge, these three prompt action. The doer, organs, activity three constituents of action
18.19 Knowledge,action and doer are three kinds according to Guna which predominates in each. Hear from ME.

18.20 That Knowledge is Satvika which sees one imperishable as undivided in all beings

18.21 Knowledge by which man cognizes many different existences in all beings know that knowledge is to be Rajasika

18.22 The irrational Knowledge, which is not true, which clings to one body as if it were the whole, is Tamasika

Verse 18.20 says one Imperishable is there undivided in all beings. That is what is meant by Lord is Omnipresent. That is what all major religions seem to say. HE is Omnipresent, hence also HE is Omnipotent and Omniscient.
Difference in religions is mostly superficial and quarrels are always out of ignorance, and motivated by self interest
18.21 shows lack of knowledge of scriptures. Clearly our so called educated ignoramus belong here
18.22 Pseudo intellectuals adamantly not agreeing with scriptures belong here. Waste of life to convince these.

18.23 Duty done unattached, without doer-ship or aversion, seeking nothing in return, is called Satvika
18.24 Action involving much strain, done with ego, and with desire, is Rajasika
18.25 Tamasika, is action through ignorance, regardless of consequences, loss to oneself, and one's own resources.


1. 18.23 is similar to 3.17-19 and 18.17 and some others

18.26 Unattached, unegoistic, firm, with zeal, unswayed by success or failure, such a doer is Satvika
18.27 Full of attachment, seeking fruit of actions, greedy, violent, unclean, passionate is called Rajasika doer.
18.28 Lacking piety and self control, uncultured, arrogant,deceitful, robbing others of their livelihood,lazy, despondent, procrastinating is Tamasika doer

Satvika doer is now a vanishing species. mainly because those who study gita are rare, practice is rarer & this..:)
It is not so hopeless a situation, almost all of us have still these two categories left :) contemplate on each word. and start applying it, but judiciously. Nothing sudden, or foolish. Take time for progress.
Knowledge of the scriptures will promote us to Satvika, if we keep reading these verses

18.29 Now hear, the threefold division, of Buddhi and dhriti, based on predominance of each Guna

18.30 Satvika buddhi correctly understands paths of pravratthi(bondage) and nivratthi(renunciation), what should and should not be done, what is fear and fearlessness, what is bondage and what is liberation
18.31 Rajasika buddhi is that by which man does not see what is dharma and what is adharma, what ought to be done and what should not be done.
18.32 Tamasika intellect, that which is wrapped in ignorance, sees even adharma as dharma, sees all things upside down

18.30 This verse is for daily contemplation. This is the knowledge required for practice.
18.31,32 Educated ignoramus, pseudo intellectuals, corrupt and warped minds fall into this category. The study of these qualities is to eschew them from our system and avoid any discussion with such people.
Subhashitas classify people into Sat-janas(satvikas), and Dur-janas(Rajasikas and Tamasikas). Repeated subhashitas advise us to avoid durjanas; hundreds of verses tell us the qualities of durjanas. End of education is Character. Lot of asuras were educated and pundits too. Not only university degrees, but those who have book knowledge of Vedas and do not stand to practice, or those who give pravachans, have money earning from that as motive, such people are to be considered durjanas only. That the Great Prakriti makes use of these for its good purpose is a different matter. The British engineer who built in mumbai, VT railway Station building was triple more corrupt than previous engineers. Yet the bldg is so good it stood for 2 centuries and continues to do so. Nature made use of him. Same is the case of Taj Mahal. Our greed is the bait kept by nature to get its work done. Pravachankars or Pundits who teach are no exceptions. Nature will make use of them, to benefit mass.
You and I will be made use of by Nature. What bait it will use for us?

18.33 The unwavering dhriti(firmness) by which one controls by yoga functions of mind, prana and senses is Satvika
18.34 The dhriti by which one clings with extreme fondness to dharma, artha, kama, seeking rewards is Rajasika
18.35 The dhriti by which an evil minded does not give up sleep, fear, anxiety, sorrow and pride is Tamasika

In our world of TV, News papers we come across a few of the satvika type. The Rajasika type who seek rewards are the vast majority. The evil minded durjanas who are bent upon harming others, the Tamasika type are also a huge number.
Dhriti or fortitude, determination, courage, strength are good although qualities, the motive and knowledge with which they are used classifies them into good bad and worse categories.

(9) Performing prescribed work, as a duty, giving up attachment and fruit, is alone the Satvika form of Tyaga
(10) Not disliking unpleasant work, nor attached to pleasant work, imbued with goodness, his doubts resolved, is intelligent and person of true renunciation.
(20) That Knowledge is Satvika which sees one imperishable as undivided in all beings
(23) Duty done unattached, without doer-ship or aversion, seeking nothing in return, is called Satvika
(26) Unattached, unegoistic, firm, with zeal, unswayed by success or failure, such a doer is Satvika
(30) Satvika buddhi correctly understands paths of pravratthi(bondage) and nivratthi(renunciation), what should and should not be done, what is fear and fearlessness, what is bondage and what is liberation
(33)The unwavering dhriti(firmness) by which one controls by yoga functions of mind, prana and senses is Satvika

(8) Renouncing for fear of physical strain, thinking painful, is Rajasika renunciation, does not get fruit of tyaga.
(21) Knowledge by which man cognizes many different existences in all beings that knowledge is to be Rajasika
(24)Action involving much strain, done with ego, and with desire, is Rajasika
(27) Full of attachment, seeking fruit of actions, greedy, violent, unclean, passionate is called Rajasika doer.
(31) Rajasika buddhi is that by which man does not see what is dharma and what is adharma, what ought to be done and what should not be done.
(34)The dhriti by which one clings with extreme fondness to dharma, artha, kama, seeking rewards is Rajasika

(7) Prescribed duties should not be renounced. Renouncing in ignorance is Tamasika
(22) The irrational Knowledge, which is not true, which clings to one body as if it were the whole, is Tamasika
(25) Tamasika, is action in ignorance, regardless of consequence, loss to oneself, one's own resourcefulness.
(28) Lacking piety and self control, uncultured, arrogant,deceitful, robbing others of their livelihood,lazy, despondent, procrastinating is Tamasika doer

(32) Tamasika intellect, that which is wrapped in ignorance, sees even adharma as dharma, sees all things upside down

(35) The dhriti by which an evil minded does not give up sleep, fear, anxiety, sorrow and pride is Tamasika

Going through the above three gunas, check whether as satsanghis and devotees , despite our fondness to our reckless imagination of our being satvik, are we really? Satva gunas show, in spite of our being 'born chit-paavan', it is only like the tilak, yajnopavit, we wear, just symbols beyond which we are only in tamas.
We can clearly see the world around us, from most educated, even in sanskrit, is dominated by tamas and rajas
Nothing to feel depressed. Only understand (BG 7-3) that there is plenty room near the Lord!
Our foremost duty is to go within(BG 5-21) ignore the seemingly turbulant, but non existing world outside.
Eschew all rajasic and tamasic thoughts. No place in Brahman, for our shortcomings,(BG 5-19). (I know we are fond our dislikes, sentimentality, greed, anger, irritation, my child and my grandchild etc -this 'my' has no place there :).

Verses 18-36 to 78 on another sheet....Contd

Chapter 17

(Revision 04 Oct 14 09)

CHAPTER 17 Shriddha-triya vibhaga Yoga (Division of Threefold Faith)

Sri Bhagavan said:


17. 1 Arjuna qns: Those who worship endowed with faith, disregarding Shasthras, where do they stand in Satwa, Rajas, or Tamas?
17. 2 The Lord says: The faith of men by nature is of three types. Satvik, Rajasik, and Tamasik; hear them from ME
17. 3 Faith of all conforms to their nature. As a person's faith, so he is
17. 4 Satvik people worship Gods, Rajasik ones demigods, Tamasik ones worship spirits of the dead, and ghosts.

17. 5 (Some) Men practice severe tapas, not sanctioned by scriptures, and are full of hypocracy, egoism, full of lust, passion and brute strength
17. 6 They emaciate the elements in their body, as well as ME in them, they are of demoniac disposition

Shastras are like a forest.
Those who walk in will generally get lost.
Get a guide and make your home in that forest. Not enough, if you listen to forest stories sitting at home.
Live there in the shastra-forest for a few years and you will have learnt the ways, the paths, the terrain, the brooks, the dangers, the killer snakes, the food, the breezy place, and a Chitrakoot for you to rest and live for the rest of your life, in the company of Lord Rama, Mother Sita, and the brave Lakshmana.
Most of things we do are OK, except 'man-maani' (Ahamkar and its various off shoots like egotism, show off, greed, lust, 1000s of stupidities, 'my view', my opinion', 'what i think')
In short, 'Aham' is the basic, fundamental, root problem which does not allow faith to take root in us.
I have to eliminate myself - no, exterminate myself and watch my extermination with calm joy.
A great Sanyasi, a great Guru lived and loved in dwaita bhava. All his disciples became hardcore Adwaitins. Yet another Guru lived and preached hardcore adwaita-jnana his entire life. Right from his lifetime itself, his disciples with great respect to him, (unintentionally) modified all talks to suit dwaitins. They did pujas on stage and sang bhajans and followed their Guru happily! Clearly, the Nature educates each one of us, humours us of our irrelevance once we achieved 'our' greatness. It says to us, it is 'I who passes on(kindles) all Knowledge
This is not to disrespect any great saint or avatar. When you look at cosmic scale, you can see what is happening. The impermanence of all things. Then why should we do what we do. We don't have to, if we have become Avadutas(BG 3-17, BG18-17) Avadutas don't have to do anything, yet they support inner core of shastras. Rest of us need to follow and support shastras and take interest in the ultimate welfare of the world (even knowing that the world does not exist) . If we do not do these satvik activities, we end up in Tamas and fall into 'man-maani'(self-centred activities)


17. 7 Food which is agreeable to all, is of three kind. Hear also the (three kinds of) differences in Yajna, Daana,Tapa
17. 8 Satviks like juicy, succulent, substantial, pleasing food which promotes longevity, intelligence, vigour, health, happiness and cheerfulness.
17. 9 Bitter, sour, salty, very hot, pungent, dry, burning, food which cause sorrow, suffering are dear to Rajasiks
17.10 Half cooked, insipid, putrid, stale, earlier eaten or tasted by others,and impure food is dear to Tamasiks


17.11 Satvika yajna is that which is done without (selfish) expectation of fruits, done as a duty and as per shastras.
17.12 Yajna, which is done,with benefits in mind, done for mere ostentation, know it to be Rajasika
17.13 Yajna, where no food was served, done devoid of mantras and faith, not following shastras, nor where services were paid, is Tamasika


17.14 Worship of gods, Brahmin's, guru, a great soul, purity, straightforwardness, continence, non-violence, are Tapas of Body.
17.15 Talk devoid of passion, truthful, sweet, beneficial, study practice of scriptures, are called Tapas of Speech
17.16 Cheerful mind, tender, contemplative, self controlled, purity of thoughts are called Tapas of Mind


17.17 With utmost faith the threefold Tapas performed by yogis, expecting no fruits is called Satvika Tapas
17.18 Tapas performed expecting respect, adoration, gain, done with ostentation, which yields uncertain and temporary fruits is called Rajasika Tapas
17.19 Tapas done with self mortification, out of stupid obstinacy, or to harm others, such Tapas is Tamasik


17.20 Charity done at proper time, place, person, with no expectation, and as a duty is Satvika

17.21 Charity given, grudgingly, expecting fruit or service in return, is Rajasika

17.22 Charity given to a wrong person, without good grace, in a disdainful way, out of time and place is Tamasika

The title of the chapter is Three Fold Faith. Satvik Faith, Rajasik Faith, Tamasik Faith.
Satvic Faith 'alone' leads to purity/Knowledge/Realization/Lord. Others at best 'eventually' 'may' lead to Satwik faith
This progress is eventually or may be in one or many lives too.
Clearly, it is not what we do that is important, but 'how' we do it 'alone' becomes all important. Entire Gita is on 'how we do' and never on 'what' you do or 'who' you are.
What we do need not be 'big' 'great' 'quantity-wise'. It can be tiny enough to be invisible, but the purity of thoughts that made us do those things becomes the RDX that detonates our thick crust of material mind into vapour and engulfs us to God Realization.
How we achieve this? Daily introspection of what I am doing. Moment to moment observing my own motive in every act, like a fond mother watching her child, or a possessive lover, watching his beloved.
Understand behind all my achieved accolades of knowledge of scriptures and the awards and the titles, adoration of multitude and seemingly everlasting fame and glory, when mind sincerely introspects, I find, there is only filth, hypocrisy, and a mountain of desires enmeshed in sense pleasures. Hence the everlasting observation of our every act and thought, and the need to keep our mind sterilised to not .999 purity but 100% purity. Saints recommend, daily fill the mind with scriptures, get into nirantar namasmaran. Otherwise, you will find all around us, ritualists, pujaris, pravachankars, pundits, gurus, swamis of whom it was sung, "what it matters that you are respected in many countries, and that you have wealth equal mto mount Meru, if your mind does not rest at the feet of your guru, 'tatah kim? tatah kim? tatah kim? tatah kim?'(so what? so what?....) meaning (with all this achievements) 'Ahamkar' has only increased.


17.23 Om Tat Sat are the three ways Brahman is remembered. Brahmanas, vedas,and yajnas were created in the yore.

17.24 Therefore acts of yajna, daana, tapa are done invoking OM, by those who know Brahman

17.25 Lord who is denoted by TAT, those who want moksha do acts of daana, tapa, yajna, without expecting fruits

17.26 SAT is used in the sense of goodness, thoughts of saints, also in praiseworthy, auspicious acts

17.27 The state in yajna, daana, tapa is called SAT. Action for the sake of Lord is called verily SAT

17.28 An oblation offered, charity done, austerity practiced, without Faith is ASAT is of no avail here or hereafter.


A brilliant, ingenious way the Lord is captured by Vedas and capsuled in each of the three words OM TAT SAT
Otherwise how can you make HIM/HER available for ordinary intelligence or common people
King/Queen's child simply calls the parent dad/mom. Others can address them in their full regalia and titles
OM the essence of all sound, hence all words for they have sound, entire seen/unseen universe/galaxies
TAT is that. what is that? which we can/cannot see, or understand, hence which we can/cannot express, short encompasses all that is known, knowable, unknown and not knowable, seen/seeable....
SAT that which is good. that which is/has faith, that which brings us nearer to HIM/HER -Godhead
The three words are not three but ONE. The division indicates how frail our faculties of intellect are.
They are like SAT, CHIT, ANANDA different and yet all are ONE only.
All our thoughts, acts ought to lead us to inner/higher circle
FAITH:17.25 & 17.28 Acts done with faith leads to Realization. Faith also presupposes knowledge or its beginning. It follows millions of charitable acts, austerities, sacrifices done without Knowledge means they are done in Moha, delusion or in attachment or in ostentation (Rajas) at best will 'eventually' lead the performer to Satwic attitude.
Clearly knowledge of the scriptures is a must. Essense of Shashtras is in one book. Gita. This knowledge of Gita needs to be milked by each of us by swadhyaya( daily study). There is only one way. Read meanings of shlokas of one chapter a day.
There is no point in getting convinced Lord has this form and that form. HE/SHE has a form only because that form is embraced by you. Your conviction and desire brings that form alive to you. If you say he does not have form, HE does'nt. If you call HIM/HER, by the word 'IT' (TAT), that's fine too. In conclusion, you find HE?SHE?IT cannot be capsuled in so many words. Hence one word/sound called OM. Thus OM becomes the original/all/final/only sound in which all other sounds 'may' be merged.

Chapter 16

(Revision 01 Aug 24 09)

CHAPTER 16 Daivaasura Sampad Vibhaga Yoga (Classification between Divine and Demoniacal Qualities)

Sri Bhagavan said:

16. 1
Fearlessness:'I am the body' is the cause of all fear - of hurt, death, loss
Purity of mind: mind in sense pleasures is impure. disassociated from atma-bhav is impure
Jnana yoga avyavasthithih: fixity in Self realization Knowledge
Daanam: Satvik Charity,
Damascha: and control of senses,
Yajnascha: and sacrifices(material or otherwise)
Swadhyaya: Study of, reflection on Scriptures
Tapah: Suffering hardships in doing one's duties
Aaarjavam:uprightness in body mind and senses, straight forwardness. A quality which seems to be there among poor farmers, villagefolk, and rare among first generation rich.

16. 2
Ahimsa: non hurting. Exception is when hurting forms your duty - parent, teacher, police, soldier, jailer, executioner, man who presses the nuclear button.
Satyam: truthfulness - what is right, straight, honest, without any selfish motive, non hurting
Akrodha: not easily provoked to anger, genial, non expecting. It doesn't mean 'never angry'
Tyagah: given to renunciation, of doer-ship, of desires, of attachment, of possessions, of relationship, finally of world.
Shanthih: calm, peaceful, imperturbable
Apaishunam: non critical, non slanderous, a state of Gunaatita(risen above Gunas)
dayaa bhuteshu: compassion towards creatures
Aloluptwam: non indulgence, non attachment
Maardavam: mildness, softness, tenderness
Heerachaapalam: abstaining from frivolous pursuits

16. 3
Tejah: Divine splendour, an inexplicable 'invisible' glow, (more felt than seen), not necessarily the glow of the affluent, or stars.
Kshama: an automatic, effortless (non-reactive) forgiveness
Dhritih: fortitude, cool, calm in difficulties,
Shaucham:general Cleanliness with orderliness
Adhroha: Bearing enmity, dislike to none,
Naatimaanitaa: not expecting or wanting to be respected

These are the marks of one born with divine endowments

Shlokas 1-3 list the Divine qualities. Each quality's existence in Saints and Mahatmas is in seed form or practical form. Nothing foolishly exhibited by them. To misunderstand their behaviour is to destroy our own bhakti, sadhana.

In a practical way Daya or Ahimsa was demonstrated by Ramakrishna Paramahamsa by coolly killing the bedbugs!

Bhagavatha mentions of Devahuti who was initially taking bath 3-6 times a day, and later once immersion in Atma-Jnan took place she remained without bath, full of dirt and mud and demonstrated what is shoucham. The ignorant make a fetish of external (imagined)cleanliness, and their entire life remains in such foolish 'don't touch and pollute me' idiotsy.

Hirachaapalam: Swami Brahmananda comes half hour late for his appointment with a new devotee, and says he was playing cards and could not get up. Brahma Chaitanya Maharaj of Gondvale was playing with a 9 yr old girl.

Naatimanitaa: Not wanting any respect, like at 29 when Swami Narayan's head, Pramukh Swami Maharaj when he was elected as President of the order, he was washing utinsils in the kitchen and yet Great Jagadgurus like His Divine Grace, Srila Prabhupada, and many other realized souls taught their disciples, who otherwise would not have learnt, that the respect higher than offered to Lord Himself, needs to be given to their Guru, in order to generate, stabilize, and augment para Shrddha in the disciples.

In short, each divine quality needs to be developed and yet needs to be exercised with care and full of 'prajna'.

16. 4
Dambha: Hypocrisy
Darpa: arrogance, insolence
Abhimaana: Pride, haughtiness
Krodha: Anger, Irritation
Paarushya: Rough, rude and hurting
Ajnaanam: Ignorance of Knowledge (Or ignorance of all that is good)

These are the signs of one born with demoniac qualities

PURPORT: It is not that, one or more of these qualities, are not present at, one or the other time, in many of the otherwise good people, but ignorance of what is called Knowledge as described in Gita. Being part of Gunas of Rajas and Tamas, the qualities manifest when these gunas come to the fore. In Saints and Mahatmas, they quickly get extinguished by their Satvik nature. A brief manifestation of anger or non-manifestation of Jnaan should not be found fault with, otherwise saintly people. Temporary 'I am body' feeling gives rise to these.

16. 5 The divine endowment is conducive to liberation and demoniac one is as leading to bondage
Grieve not, for you are born with divine propensities
16. 6 There are two types of men in this world. Divine and demoniac. Divine one has been dealt with in detail. Listen to the demoniac disposition.

16. 7 People with demoniac disposition, know not what is right to do and what is not right to do
They possess neither purity, nor good conduct, nor even truthfulness.
16. 8 They say this world is unreal, Godless, brought about by mutual union of male and female, conceived in lust. What else than this?
16. 9 These dull witted, men of vile disposition, of terrible deeds, enemies of mankind, bent on destruction of the world.

16.10 Cherishing insatiable desires and embracing false doctrines through ignorance, these men of impure conduct move in this world, full of hypocrisy,pride and arrogance
16.11 With innumerable cares, worries ending only in death, they remain devoted to enjoyment of sensuous pleasures, firmly believing that this is the highest limit of joy.
16.12 Bound by hundreds of ties of expectation wholly giving themselves to lust and anger, they strive to amass by unfair means hordes of wealth for sensuous pleasures.

16.13 They say, this I got today, I shall now fulfill my desire. This is with me, more will be with me in future
16.14 That enemy is slain by me, I shall kill others too; I am the lord, enjoy-er, successful, mighty and happy.
16.15 In ignorance, deluded, says, "I am wealthy, with large family. who equals me? Will enjoy, give alms, perform sacrifices"

16.16 Mind in a variety of delusion, covered with net of moha, addicted to sense pleasures, fall into worst hell.
16.17 Proud with wealth and honour, conceited and haughty do yajnas for show, without the sacred rituals
16.18 With ego, strength, arrogance, lust and anger, they despise ME dwelling in others

16 19 Those cruel, vilest among people, I cast them repeatedly in the demoniacal wombs

16.20 These stupid persons born life after life in demoniac wombs, failing to reach me,they go to low destination.

16.21 Desire, anger, greed these three gates to hell bring downfall of the soul. Therefore, these should be shunned.

16.22 Freed from these three gates of hell, man works for his own salvation, thereby attains the Supreme goal.


Who are the ones who are of demoniacal nature? All of us who do not read daily Gita and practice it. This pride, insolence, haughtiness, anger, greed, ahamkar, why we are having such qualities ? because of ignorance of, and forgetting to recall what we read once in a year on spiritual knowledge. Anger, greed, lust make us forget in times of need the consequences of our actions(known as karmic laws).

Another way of understanding why they are so, is to know the three Gunas or modes. Satwa(goodness and knowledge), Rajas (activities in desire, lust, anger etc) and Tamas(ignorance, blunder etc)

There is no point in looking where such demons are ? in which religion? in which neighbouring nation? in which political party? or which one of my relative ? These demoniacal propensities are in me only.Witness, we will be in for heartburn.

So, what I have to do. Recall daily actions before I sleep or at prayer time or while meditating and vow to change myself. Beseech Lord to help me.

16. 23 One discarding the rules of scriptures, acts desire-ridden, he does not attain to result, here or hereafter nor happiness

16. 24 Therefore let Shastras be your guide what you should do and should not do. Knowing this you should do what needs to be done as per shastras


dt 23 08 09

Why we need to follow shastras? same reason why we need to follow rules of the road or laws of the land. Some injustice for individuals at times may take place on account of this.(your wife or child needs urgent medical attention and your driving license has expired, no other transport is available. Will you not drive them with an expired license?)

On the other hand, if everyone starts bending the laws to suit each one's convenience, there will be no organized way of functioning in society.

That's why, all need to follow shastras. Yet exceptions are there. The head of the household may at times break the rules and take decisions if that serves the cause of justice. A soldier can kill in war, a judge can sentence to death the criminal, a doctor can take decisions about his patient, which as a relative he is not supposed to take.

All these examples show to us, as a general practice we have to follow the rules. A guru, Jnani, head of the organization can overrule, modify the existing rule to serve the cause of dharma or duty. Like an expert gardener can re-plant, cut, prune any plant. Shathras can be interpreted only by Acharyas who have larger interests of society and their end welfare(shreyas)

As a disciple, Swami Chinmayananda had to use a rock as a pillow, so he could sleep lightly and get up by 3 am to serve his master tea prepared each day using fresh water from Ganga sixty feet below- tea which the Guru did not drink most of the time. Yet as a Guru, Swami Chinmayananda, did not put his disciples to such harsh tests at Sandeepani Vidyalaya. Gave them comforts (though spartan) of room, cots, beds, pillows, morning tea etc and a more earthly timing for studies. Nature brings change in rules. Both opposing views so it looks like. Both were right in their purpose.

In short, shloka 23 shows, we ourselves, who are prisoners of gunas, cannot change rules(shastras) which govern us. In fact, the shastras must be our guide at all times, and yet the Great Gurus or those in Prajna, can advise us on actions, and also bring permanent change even in Shastras to suit the times, keeping the essence intact.

Chapter 15

(Revision 03 Oct 26 09)


Sri Bhagavan said:

15. 1 He who knows the Ashwatha tree (creation), which is said to be imperishable, with its roots upwards,(in the Primeval Being), whose branches are down and whose leaves are Vedas, he knows.
15. 2 The branches of the tree extend both upwards and downwards fed by the Gunas and having sense objects for their leaves, its roots bind the soul according to its actions in the world of humans
15. 3 Its nature cannot be grasped. It has no beginning nor end. Cut this ashattha tree which is firmly rooted with a determined mind, and with the weapon of dispassion(non attachment)


The creation is compared to an inverted Ashwatha tree; the roots are in the Lord, and branches are in the world of creation, its leaves are Vedas.
The word Shashwatha means permanent, ashashwatha means impermanent; ashwatha tree which looks like permanent or long living with powerful roots and hundreds of branches, is not really permanent.
Jivas are fed by gunas, and the roots(desires and vasanas prompted actions) are the ones which bind the jiva to the creation
Like one who is all the while part of the tree, cannot grasp it, we too cannot understand this creation. The creation looks permanent, without a beginning and without an end.
Lord urges us to cut this false tree of creation by the formidable weapon of detachment. For what prevents us from knowing the tree(creation) is our involvement in it.


Superficially we understand what was said above. What is the test that we really understood what was said?
Spot that statement which you fully agree now.

15. 4 Therefore a man should diligently seek for that supreme state having attained which they return no more to this world; and having resolved that he stands dedicated to that Primeval being Himself, from whom this beginning less creation has progressed, he should dwell and meditate on HIM.

15. 5 The wise men who are free from pride and delusion, who have conquered the evil of attachment, who are in eternal union with God, whose cravings are altogether ceased and who are completely immune from all pairs of opposites going by the names of pleasure and pain, reach that supreme immortal state.


Once we agree that the creation is false, now seek that Supreme State attaining which no rebirth ensues.
Having decided firmly, now dedicate totally to HIM
The wise men who will reach that Supreme State are described
Such wise ones are free from pride and delusion (that this world, its objects, its relationship, our very existence are real )
They get rid of evil called attachment
They have one goal and on that they constantly meditate.
Having given up all cravings, desires, expectations
Have come out of dwandwas like joy and sorrows,

15. 6 Neither sun, moon nor even fire can illumine that Supreme State, attaining which they never return to this world. That is MY Supreme Abode.


The power of that Supreme State is given here
Comparing it to sun, moon, fire; and saying that it is far superior to these which are part of creation.
In other words, that Supreme Abode is beyond or other than this creation


How anything can be superior to Sun? moon we can understand, also fire, a bigger fire is superior. How can there be something superior to Sun? Inconcieveable!
Meditate. The answer dawns and with certainty and clarity

15. 7 The eternal jivatma in this body is a particle of My own being; and it is that alone which draws round itself the mind and the five senses, which rest in Prakriti.

15. 8 Even as the wind wafts scent from their seat, so too jivatma, which is the controller of the body etc, taking the mind and the senses from the body which it leaves behind forthwith migrates to the body which it acquires.

15. 9 It is while dwelling in the senses of hearing, sight, touch, taste and smell, as well as in the mind, that this jivatma enjoys the objects of senses.

15. 10 The ignorant know not the soul departing from, or dwelling in the body, or enjoying the objects of the senses, i.e., even when it is connected with the three Gunas; only those endowed with the eye of wisdom are able to realize it.


Jivatma(individual soul in the body) is MY own part
It attracts mind and senses and rests in Prikriti
When death takes place, this jivatma(who is not Realized) takes with it mind and senses(unfulfilled desires and vasanas) seeks another body to fulfil those desires
It is Jivatma sitting in (prakriti called) body enjoys and suffers, identifying itself with the body
Those who do not have the Knowledge, do not understand all this, the wise know it.

15. 11 Striving yogis too are able to realize this Self enshrined in their heart.The ignorant, however, whose heart has not been purified, know not this self in spite of their best endeavors.


Striving yogis with pure heart are able to realize this.
Not those whose hearts still have desires and expectations from this world.
In other words, if you think that the world of creation(the Tree) is real, your heart remains impure


The line between dawn and morning is so evanescent, so thin, that one does not know when exactly the dawn disappeared and the morning appeared.
You wake up and the dream disappears like the dawn of the morning

15. 12 The light in the sun, that illumines the entire world, and that which shines in the moon and that too which shines in the fire, know that light to be Mine.

15. 13 And,permeating the soil, it is I who support all creatures by my Vital Power, and becoming the nectarine moon, I nourish all plants.

15. 14 taking the form of fire lodged in the body of all creatures and united with the Prana(exhalation) and Apana breaths, it is I who consume the four kinds of food.

15. 15 It is I, who remains seated in the heart of all creatures as the inner controller of all; it is I who am the source of memory, knowledge and the ratiocinating faculty. Again, I am the only object worth knowing though the Vedas; I alone am the father of the Vedanta and the knower of the Vedas too.


HE describes HIMSELF; the light in sun, moon and fire are HIS only
In earth as vital power supports creation, as moon nourishes the plants
Seated in each being, HE controls all the functions
Yes, HE alone is worth knowing, rest is all prakriti and Maya(that which is not) or delusion.
Talk of highest scripture Vedas, in that also, HE is the one to be known
Everything has come only from HIM.
In other words eliminate all doubts and develop total faith in HIM


There is one theme.

15. 16 The perishable and the imperishable too- these are the two kinds of Purushas in this world. Of these, the bodies of all beings are spoken of as the perishable' while the jivatmas or the embodied soul is called imperishable.

15. 17 The Supreme person is yet other than these, who having entered all the three worlds, upholds and maintains all, and has been spoken of as the imperishable Lord and the Supreme Spirit

15. 18 Since I am wholly beyond the perishable world of matter or Kshetra, and am superior even to the imperishable soul, hence I am known as the Purushottama in the world, as well as, in the Vedas.


HE explains further the entire Creation
There is perishable matter which is Prakriti
Imperishable matter is called Jivatma or embodied soul, (you and me who are in ignorance)
HE is higher than both of these and is called PURUSHOTHAMA
Embodied soul is called Jiva for it is in Avidya or in ignorance of its True Nature
Liberation is realizing its true nature where it finds its unity with Purushothama
Dwaitins believe, that jiva can never be in unity with Purushothama for HE is perennially different from Jiva. Truth will be revealed by various scriptures like Bhagavatha

15. 19 Arjuna, the wise man who thus realizes ME as the Supreme Person-knowing all, he constantly worships ME with this whole being.

15. 20 Arjuna, this most esoteric teaching has thus been imparted by Me; grasping it in essence man becomes wise and his mission in life is accomplished.


Wisdom lies in total dedication to HIM
Constant worship of HIM
Develop complete faith in HIM
Use Reason, and grasp HIS teaching.
Liberate yourself.
Mission in life will have been accomplished
Mission in life is not getting bogged down in creation, but coming out of it.
That is why the cutting of the Tree called creation, by sword of detachment.

If you are Bhakti oriented, follow the teachings to the letter with total faith.
This is how the followers of Srila Prabhupada, Founder Acharya of Iskcon do.
Read only books like Bhakti Rasamrita Sindhu, bhakti books which augment bhakti


The seemingly never ending quarrels and arguments between the advocates of Bhakti and Jnana gets dissolved at a stage where words merge in silence
In that Great Silence the merger of Dwaita and Adwaita, Bhakti and Jnana, takes place, leaving surprisingly no trace of difference.
Surprise is when one stands on this side of the bank called ignorance, with Knowledge all surprise too ends

Chapter 14

(Revision 01 Feb 07 09)


Sri Bhagavan said:

14. 1 I shall discuss once more the supreme wisdom, the best of all wisdom, acquiring which all sages have attained highest perfection. being liberated from this mundane existence

14. 2 Those who by practising this wisdom, have entered into My being are not born again at the cosmic dawn nor feel disturbed even during the cosmic night.


Wisdom Supreme is told from the point of view of Gunas of Prakriti.
Lord can be approached in seemingly different, yet non-conflicting, paths.
Just like Karma, Jnana,, Bhakti, Yoga have been told in detail, same wisdom is presented taking Gunas as the main theme.

14. 3 My primordial Nature, known as the great Brahma, is the womb of all creatures; In that womb I place the seed of all life. The creation of all beings follows from that union of Matter and Spirit.
14. 4 Of all embodied beings that appear in the species of various kinds, Prakriti or Nature is the conceiving Mother, while I am the seed-giving Father.


Nature or Parkriti is called the womb. The Life Principle is the seed which the Lord places in Nature
Creation of beings is on account of this union.
(Naturally the soul permeating in Parkriti gets tied down as if mesmerised by Prakriti.)

14. 5 Satva, Rajas and Tamas-these three qualities born of Nature tie down the imperishable soul to the body.

14. 6 Of these Satva being immaculate, is illuminating and flawless, Arjuna; it binds through identification with joy and wisdom.
14. 7 Know the quality of Rajas, which is of the nature of passion, as born of cupidity and attachment. It binds the soul through attachment to actions and their fruit.
14. 8 And know Tamas, the deluder of all those who look upon the body as their own self, as born of ignorance. It binds the soul through error, sloth and sleep, Arjuna.


Nature which ties down Soul to it, is of three kinds. Satva, Rajas and Tamas
Satva is clean, and flawless; It binds the soul, through identification with joy and wisdom.
Quality of Rajas is passion, born of desire and attachment. Ropes are attachment to action and fruit
Tamas deludes through ignorance. It binds with error, sloth and sleep

14. 9 Satva drives one to joy; Rajas to action; while Tamas, clouding wisdom, incites one to error as well as sleep and sloth.

14. 10 Overpowering Rajas and Tamas, Arjuna Satva prevails; overpowering Satva and Tamas, Rajas prevails; even so, overpowering Satva and Rajas, Tamas prevails
14. 11 When light and discernment dawn in this body, as well as in the mind and senses, then one should know that satva is predominant
14.12 With the preponderance of Rajas, greed, activity, undertaking of action with interested motive, restlessness and a thirst for enjoyment make their appearance
14. 13 With the growth of Tamas, Arjuna, obtuseness of the mind and senses, disinclination to perform one's obligatory duties, frivolity and stupor - all these appear


Of the three Gunas, one which is predominant will overpower the other two.
When discrimination, balance, light, knowledge makes its appearance Satva is predominant
When action with selfishness, greed and activity itself,thirst for enjoyment come to the fore when Rajas is predominant.
When Tamas grows, a disinclination to do what you are supposed to do make its appearance. Non giving of 10% obligatory charity(as per Murari Bapu the Saint of Ramayana talks) to society's good and hoarding everything for oneself and family is tamasic

14. 14 When a man dies during the preponderance of the Satva, he obtains the stainless ethereal worlds(heaven, etc) attained by men of noble deeds
14. 15 Dying when Rajas predominates, he is born among those attached to action; even so the man who has expired during the preponderance of Tamas is reborn in the species of stupid creatures, such as insects and beasts etc.


At death whatever Guna dominates the results are as given above.
If you are totally with Lord, and doing pranayama, chanting OM, you will be in Satva
If self interest, activity, or greed to preserve what you have dominates Rajas
If in attachment to family, stupor, carelessness sleepiness, Tamas is dominating
Next birth determined at the time of death depend on predominant Guna shown.

14. 16 The reward of righteous act, they say, is Satvika, i.e., faultless(in the shape of joy, wisdom, dispassion etc.); sorrow is declared to be the fruit of Rajasika act and ignorance, the fruit of Tamasika act.

You recommended someone for a job, or helped someone in dire need. Surely there is satisfaction and happiness which you experience ; each of these Satvika acts bring in its wake a life full of wisdom to do right actions.
You wanted to show how rich you are and spent a huge amount of money on marriage which your relatives and friends consider it a waste. At the end of it, you find none had genuinely a good word about it. Your feeling is one of hurt, pain. Rajasic acts have to end in unhappiness
You were invited to see a horror movie which only made you laugh; you went to a ultra modern art exhibition, which had neither art, nor beauty to elevate, nor any education. Both the movie director or the artist of the art exhibition were blissfully unaware what the people felt about their film and artwork. Acts in Tamas. Neither we care for consequences, nor for wisdom of others. We become obstinate, reckless all in ignorance. Like the lady with no means, who already had 8 children goes and gets herself pregnant for another 10, without caring for consequences

14. 17 Wisdom follows the Satva, and greed, undoubtedly from Rajas; likewise obstinate error, stupor and also ignorance follow from Tamas.


In our daily life either when we are prompted to act, watch for the guna at that moment. Once we recognise the Guna at the moment we shift from the lower Guna to higher one. We can do this for 21 days, convert our acts, moods, thoughts all into satvic Guna and thereafter a complete transformation takes place in our attitude, thoughts and life. suddenly, we find ourselves propelled by nobility and greatness.

14. 18 Those who abide in the quality of Satva wend their way upwards; while those Rajasika disposition stay in the middle. And those of a Tamasika temperament, enveloped as they are in the effects of Tamoguna, sink down.
14. 19 When the seer perceives no agent other than the three Gunas, and realizes ME, the supreme Spirit standing entirely beyond these three Gunas, he enters into MY Being
14. 20 Having transcended the aforesaid three Gunas, which have caused the body, and freed from birth, death, old age and all kinds of sorrow, this soul attains supreme bliss


Knowing our Guna at this moment, as we saw helps us immensely. With zero outside help, we can simply shift our position to the best position and eventually make that as our real stature.
This is the quickest way to Greatness, and with least effort!
Thereafter, you, the seer observes every one's acts, behaviour and applying Gunas, you find the whole world is a play of these three gunas. You have solved all the problems of the world. Instant solution.
Now you realize that these gunas of Prakriti caused the body, and its disease, death; and sorrow on account of these and you, the Soul is really unaffected, and always in a state of bliss which is your nature.

Arjuna said:

14. 21 What are the marks of him who has risen above the three Gunas, and what is his conduct? And how, Lord, does he rise above the three Gunas.

Sri Bhagavan said:
14. 22 Arjuna, he who hates not light (which is born of satva) and activity (which is born of Rajas) and even stupor (which is born of Tamas), when prevalent, nor longs for them when they have ceased.
14. 23 He who is sitting like witness, is not disturbed by the Gunas, remains established in identity with God, and never falls off from that state


Who is a Gunatita? or risen above Gunas ? One who does not mind their presence or absence in anyone.
When you see the speaker is trying to get importance for himself, you recognize that his rajo Guna that is responsible. when someone procrastinates, delays action, you see not fault in him, it is TamoGuna in him makes him delay the action. When you see an old teacher of yours looking pleasant and happy and has good word for everyone, you realize it is his Satva Guna operating at that time.
Understanding thus, how can you dislike anyone or find fault with anyone? don't we say, it is his drinks that caused the problem, otherwise he is a good person.
You have now become a witness, and stop judging others. With this habit permanently ingrained, you will never fall from that noble pedestal

14. 24 He who is ever established in the Self, takes woe and joy alike, regards a clod of earth, a stone and piece of gold as equal in value, is possessed of wisdom, receives the pleasant as well as the unpleasant in the same spirit and views censure and praise alike
14. 25 Who is indifferent to honour and ignominy, is alike, to the cause of friend as well as that of an enemy, and has renounced the sense of doership in all undertakings, is said to have risen above the three Gunas.
14. 26 He too who constantly worships ME through the Yoga of exclusive devotion- transcending these three Gunas, he becomes eligible for attaining Brahma
14. 27 For, I am the ground of the imperishable Brahma, of immortality, of the eternal virtue and of unending(immutable) bliss.

Shloka 24 says established in self, having risen above the gunas, he has attained to equanimity of mind.
He has renounced the sense of doer-ship and has become exactly like the yogi, para-bhakta or high order Jnani. All this means, there is no difference between a gunateeta and Jnani, para-bhkata, or yogi all are difference names for Realized Soul.
Naturally such a person will worship (mind for ever united with) the Lord. For he has no other work, duty or desire
He worships (meditates, reflects) ME who is the very basis of imperishable, immortal Brahman of eternal virtue and unending bliss.
The great advantage of the study and practice of of this chapter on Gunas, is the simple way it takes you to the sanctum sanctorum. Remember how some VIP devotees are straight away taken by side door instead of 3hr long queue.

Chapter 13

(Revision 02 Oct 20 09)
Sri Bhagavan said:
13. 1 This body is termed as Field, and he who knows it is called Khsetrajna(knower of the field) by the sages discerning truth about both.
13. 2 Know Myself to be the Kshetrajna (individual soul) also in all the Kshetras. It is the Knowledge of Kshetra and Khsetrajna which I consider Wisdom
13. 3 What the Kshetra is and what it is like, and also what are its evolutes, again, whence is what, and finally who that Kshetrajna is and what is his glory – hear all this from ME in nutshell.
Purusha and Prakriti
The Universe divided clearly into two divisions, The Field and the Knower(of field).
This knowledge Lord says is real Knowledge
He is going to tell in totality, that Knowledge
On the face of it, what is great about knowing what is called the field, something so ordinary and who does not know it. That's why the next shlokas.
13. 4 The truth about the Kshetra and the Kshetrajna has been expounded by the seers in manifold ways; again, it has been separately stated in different Vedic chants and also in the conclusive and reasoned texts of the Brahmasutras.
13. 5 The five elements, the ego, intellect, the Unmanifest, the ten organs of ( perception and action), the mind, the five objects of sense(sound, sight, touch, taste and smell)
13. 6 Also desire, aversion, pleasure, pain, the physical body, consciousness, firmness: thus is the Kshetra, with its evolutes.
Kshetra and its evolutes:
This knowledge has been expounded in various scriptures. Only when we read them we will know what is being said about here. Or else, our understanding remains somewhat incomplete.
The 5 elements(Akasa, Air, Fire,Water Earth), Ego, Intellect, Mind the ten organs (of perception and action), the five objects of senses,and the unmanifest prakriti, Total:24
Evolutes of Prakriti: Desire, aversion, pleasure, pain, the physical body, consciousness, firmness.
Kshetra still does not become more than an explanation of some of the things which we already know
Hence a different way of telling what are the signs that you have understood it all, is told in the following shlokas which say the qualities of a man who has understood it.
The clue is in Verse 13.4
13. 7 Absence of pride, freedom from hypocrisy, non-violence, forbearance, straightness of body, speech and mind, devout service of the preceptor, internal and external purity, steadfastness of mind and control of body, mind and the senses
13. 8 Dispassion towards the objects of enjoyment of this world and the next, and also absence of egotism, pondering on the pain and evils inherent in birth, death, old age and disease.
13. 9 Absence of attachment and the feeling of mineness in respect of son, wife, home, etc, and constant equipoise of mind both in favorable and unfavorable circumstances.
13. 10 Unflinching devotion to ME through exclusive attachment, living in secluded and holy places, and finding no enjoyment in the company of men.
13. 11 Fixity in knowledge and seeing God as the object to true knowledge: all this is declared as knowledge, and what is other than this is called ignorance
Characteristics of Knowledge:
Pride: have to fall, like water from higher level to down. No exception. The greater the sadhana, the quicker the reminder. Pride is like evergrowing weed. we are proud of wealth, health, beauty, youth, connections, high birth, Type of Visa, of Passport, stupid possessions, of children, their achievements from nursery class to Harvard PhD. Pride occupies a proud place in our life everywhere! It is not easy to find a thing of which we are not proud of.
Hypocrisy: Showing what we are really not. Can't afford to pay service charges for Lexus/Merc bought(on instalments!), but have to show off, I have Lexus/Merc. Result of inferiority complex. showing the knowledge which we do not have, or sadhana which we do not practice.
Non-violence: Basic idea is not having hatred, ill-will, not wanting to hurt. But, pragmatism is a must. Look at termite and insect eliminators, eaters of plants, roots, or fruits, soldiers, police, Home minister, defence minister, collector, Traffic police, executioner, all these have to do their job which may look violent; but in the larger interest of society, necessary. Soft belly is not non-violence. A king needs to be necessarily cruel- Chanakya niti. When the population is large, capital and harsh punitive punishment even for small crimes becomes necessary (Broken window theory of Newyork, where bigger crimes fell drastically after applying this for petty crimes). Non violence is not for govt to use, Gandhiji wisely used it against a powerful Govt. He did not say we should not have army or police, or traffic police. Understand that even if 950 people are satvik and good, 10-50 lawbreakers can create chaos in society.
Forbearance: Good, but need to be practical in application. For Sanyasis, sadhakas a must, but not for Govt, police, Principals, Headmasters, judges. Those who are on this path of Self Realization, especially when above 60yrs and retired, time to practice total forbearance. If you are a full time sadhaka, and no more interested inthe world, and are not messing up in the world's affairs, and live in a secluded place, do not read news papers, watch TV, forbearance is for you. But if you adminstratively-head a spiritual mission, forbearance is to be applied only where absolutely necessary. If you are a new daughter in law or retired mother in law, older couple depending on children, forbearance is for you.
Straight forwardness in speech, mind and Body: Only for sadhakas who are retired. You have to speak sweetly, but check your motive; It needs to be clean, devoid of cheating, selfishness. Read Puranas, scriptures: how politely the good people in those scriptures speak. Some of us confuse our own rudeness to frankness. a word or speech that hurts is worse than bleeding wound.
Service to Guru: Major way to eliminate or subdue ego. No point in imagining that Acharyas are your Guru; they are dead and Gone. and those who have lakhs of followers likes you can accept as your Guru for they do not get time to either meet you or for subduing your ego. We can happily live with now a bigger ego, feeling - I am a follower of so and so. Accept someone closer to you as your Guru who can chastise you. Husband? or wife? whoever is spiritually higher than you. It is necessary for a guru to be in Brahmanishta(and not in Jagat-nishta) and also well versed in scriptures.
Purity: External is for calming our mind. 'I took bath'. 'Now I am clean'. Internal purity comes of continuous noble thoughts and nobler deeds. Keep company(by daily reading) of noble puranic characters, saints. The mind needs to be purged of bad notions, evil thoughts, and worldly desires.
Control of body, mind and senses: Once liberation becomes the goal, reading scriptures convinces the need for a regulated life, which means self control.
Absence of egotism: Egotism is talking about I and me; Ah! no point in meeting such people , you say.
What made Siddhartha to leave his palace and go in search of truth. Constant reflection on the inherent pain and suffering in birth, disease, old age, and death will make us reflect- what this is all about.
Absence of attachment to wife, son, and home: More difficult to come out of these attachment. If wife wants to practice non-attachment, husband won't allow her and vice versa. Possessive instincts. play of ego. Children and home are generally secondary and yet they cast a powerful moha on the mind from which we will escape only when those very children cheat, hurt, neglect, abuse us.
Equipoise of mind: Desires, expectations, when not met likely to shatter our poise.
Exclusive devotion: Got to choose one: worldly enjoyment or God; both cannot go together.
Living in secluded places: The relationship with the Lord is and has to be personal to start with. This is possible only if he remains away from the crowd of friends and relatives.
Finding no enjoyment in the company of men: crowds, groups of people are generally mobilized by desire to enjoy or to gain something from the other. The exception, (to some extent), to these are the satsangh groups, where you learn how to connect ourselves to Lord.
Fixity in the spiritual knowledge and all the above are called Knowledge. Anything contrary is called ignorance.
The above 16 points are simple explanation of each point that describes knowledge. The meaning becomes clearer once we start developing these qualities.
Out of 16 points there is one point which is most important. Clue: If you have that, all automatically follows.
13. 12 I shall speak to you at length about that which ought to be known, and knowing which one attains Supreme Bliss. That Supreme Brahman, who is the lord of beginning-less entities said to be neither Sat (being)nor Asat(non-being)
13. 13 It has hands and feet on all sides, eyes, head and mouth in all directions, and ears all-round; for it pervades all in the universe.
13. 14 Though perceiving all sense objects, devoid of senses. Nay, though unattached, it is the sustain-er of all;none the less; though attribute-less, it is the enjoyer of all qualities(the three modes of Prakriti)
13. 15 It exists without and within all beings; constitutes the animate and inanimate creation as well; And by reason of its subtlety, it is incomprehensible; it is close at hand and stands afar too.

13. 16 Though integral like space in its undivided aspect, it appears divided as it were in all animate and inanimate beings. And that Godhead, which is the only object worth knowing, is the sustainer of beings(Vishnu), the destroyer(Rudra) and the creator of all(Brahma)
13. 17 That Supreme (Brahman) is said to be the light of all lights, and entirely beyond Maya. That Godhead is knowledge itself. Worth knowing, and worth attaining through real wisdom, and is particularly seated in the heart of all.
13. 18 Thus the truth of the Kshetra, and Knowledge, as well as the object worth knowing God, has been briefly discussed; knowing this in reality, My devotee enters into My being.
The Supreme is being(Sat) as well non-being(Asat). He is called HE, but HE can also be SHE, or IT
He has hands, feet, eyes ears, mouths etc on all side and in all direction. In other words, his any sense organ, located at any spot in the entire universe, can do the work of all other organs. Nothing can escape him. He is the only one who cannot be cheated for he is also in the very heart and mind of the cheater as witness.
He observes all the sense objects and yet does not have senses.
Lord is without any attributes and yet enjoys the prakriti (residing in beings)
Though unattached, HE sustains all, and the universe too.
We know HE is within all beings. He is also without all beings
In other words, though integral (undivided single) and stands divided in animate and inanimate beings
HE is so close to us. HE is our mind our soul, our glory, our austerity, our intellect, our strength,. and our greatness. HE is so far from us(from our thoughts) that HE is unreachable
Again HE is so subtle, HE becomes unreachable to our (desire ridden, and world drenched,) intellect.
HE is the highest goal. So high, HE becomes the only One worth attaining.
Since HE is seated in the heart of us, HE gives us ample clues to achieve HIM
Again a lot of simple words
It is a puzzle till you solve it.
13. 19 Prakriti and Purusha, know both these as beginning-less. And know all modifications such as likes and dislikes etc., and all objects constituted of three Gunas as born of Prakriti.
13. 20 Prakriti is said to be responsible for bringing forth the evolutes and the instruments; while the individual Soul is declared to be the cause of experience of joys and sorrows.
13. 21 Only the Purusha seated in Prakriti, sense objects (of the nature of the three Gunas) that is responsible for the birth of this soul in good and evil wombs.
13. 22 The Spirit dwelling in this body is really the same as the Supreme. HE has been spoken off as the Witness, the true Guide, the Sustainer of all, the Experiencer(as the embodied Soul), Overlord and the Absolute as well.
Prakriti and Purusha are beginning less, why? It is like asking the origin of the universe, presuming that it began in time. We are accustomed to think everything must begin somewhere in time. We have been conditioned to think like that. Need not be. Just like the Lord(Soul) is beginning-less, Prakriti is also beginning-less. If Time is an illusion, how can there be a beginning and end ?
The gunas of prakriti are Satwa,(Light) Rajas,(activity) and tamas(Darkness)
Prakriti brings forth instruments(organs of perception, action, mind, intellect) and evolutes(desire aversion etc) and the Purusha(Soul) enjoys or suffers(mistakenly, taking Himself to be in bondage) joys and sorrows.
This identification, bringing desires etc causes rebirth in good and bad wombs
The Soul in the body is same as the Supreme. He is called Witness, Guide, Experiencer etc. The Individual Soul imagines HE is Jiva-one who is in bondage. HE finds HIS real identity of being Supreme, when HE wakes up to Knowledge.
13. 23 He who thus knows the Purusha (Spirit) and Prakriti (Nature) together with the Gunas- even though performing his duties in every way, is never born again
Mr Obama was an ordinary citizen amidst 330 mn citizens(like the soul not identifiable amidst prakriti)
When he became the Senator, he found he is no longer an ordinary citizen. Although limited, yet he had powers, he could control, and he could do many things (The Man realizes HE is the Soul with special qualities, different from 330mn ordianry citizens who are like a mass of prakriti or Nature)
With (Evolutes of Prakriti) the goal, plan of action, efforts, using resources, Mr Obama now became the President of USA and found Himself with vast powers.(The soul realizes that he is the Supreme) He is now completely different from anyone in the world.(The Supreme Commander of the world's most powerful country) Yet he was/is also the citizen ( was the individual soul)
He got the full knowledge that this is the highest achievable. HE is Supreme. He need not seek anymore, job(Thew soul he is not born again). As a President or ex President he, like Jimmy Carter, can do social service, but will not be affected by that(The name, fame and money etc does not now bind him, for he has achieved it all.)
13. 24 Some by meditation behold the Supreme Spirit in the heart with the help of their refined and sharp intellect; others realize it through the discipline of Knowledge, and others again, through the discipline of Action
13. 25 Other dull-witted persons however, not knowing thus, worship even as they have heard from others; even those who are thus devoted to hearing, are able to cross the ocean of mundane existence in the shape of death.
By meditation: You observe the mind running after objects (which it keeps creating every second) and start looking at those objects as witness, without getting attached and bring back the mind on the Lord.
Thus the mind is sharpened by divesting it of all desires, expectations, pairs of opposites.
The sharpened intellect now focused only on Lord, wanting only HIM, attains to Him
Some follow the Jnana yoga(where you start observing each action of yours, reject doership assigning those actions to gunas of prakriti,) attain to the Knowledge of Reality
Some others Karma yoga (renouncing doership and fruit of actions)
Others take to worship hearing from others.
Everyone reaches HIM
Dinner at 7 stars for some, udupi hotels for others, dabha for yet others, roadside pav-bhaji for the poor. and Yet all get their stomach full and belch happily
13. 26 Whatsoever being animate or inanimate, is born, know it as emanated from the union of Kshetra(Matter) and Kshetrajna(Spirit)
13. 27 He alone truly sees, who sees the Supreme Lord as the Imperishable and abiding equally in all perishable beings, both animate and inanimate.
If something is born, it must be by combination of Purusha and Prakriti.(for the soul, as jiva(boy or girl), must have body(instrument) and evolutes(toys) to function/live (play)
One who sees the Supreme, in all beings, sees. Here the focus is on Supreme.
Like the focus of the fond parent who sees (only) his child playing amidst hundreds of school children.
13. 28 For he who kills not himself by himself, by seeing the Supreme Lord, equally present in all, as one, thereby reaches the Supreme state
13. 29 And he alone really sees, who sees all actions being performed in everyway by Prakriti, and Self as the non-doer
Human life's main goal is Realization. If one does not attempt that, he is committing suicide. That's why suicide is a crime. there is other reason ! the vast population including some most lawyers and judges is not aware why suicide is a crime. Why should I not commit suicide? It is my life ! The only reason that gives a right to interfere is the highest interest of the man himself, so that he might not lose a chance to realize. We can clearly see now, from Gita point of view, 99% are anyway committing suicide only since their life has been wasted.
Who acts? say commits suicide? not the soul, but gunas of Prakriti. Soul is only a witness. It is the Gunas that prompt the Body, mind, and intellect which are again instruments of Prakriti that commit this act, as they committed all other acts prompted by gunas. The soul is the witness, enjoyer and sufferer(in ignorance of Himself)
13. 30 The moment man perceives the diversified existence of beings as rooted in the one Supreme Spirit, and the spreading forth of all beings from the same, that very moment he attains Brahman(who is Truth ,Consciousness and Bliss)
This is the real meaning of Unity in diversity. This phrase we have come across and we understood in some sense, say all Indians are same in culture, thoughts, although diverse, we are having something same to unite us. That something same is this Supreme who is there in all. No need for a good man to throw overboard in befriending a criminal. Leave that job for great social reformers like S S Ravi Shankar or Kiran Bedi
Ordinary mortals have to see how the soul bound by Gunas(tamas and Rajas) of Prakriti propel the man to criminal acts.
The very perception of seeing Lord in all beings that moment the seer attains to Brahman. Once this knowledge is obtained the next step is to keep practicing this daily in all activities as practicable.
13. 31 Without beginning and without attributes, this indestructible Supreme Spirit, though dwelling in the body, in fact does nothing, nor gets contaminated.
13. 32 As the all pervading ether is not by reason of its subtlety, so seated everywhere in the body, the Self is not affected by the attributes of the body due to its attriubuteless character.
13. 33 As the one sun illumines this entire Universe, so the one Atma(Spirit) illumines the whole Kshetra(Field)
It is clear now, that the Soul has
No attributes,
no beginning,
does nothing, no action
does not get contaminated, even though seated everywhere
and yet illuminates the whole Kshetra means life pulsates the whole field
13. 34 Those who thus perceive with the eye of wisdom the difference between the Kshetra and Kshetrajna, and the phenomenon of liberation from Prakriti with her evolutes, reach the supreme eternal Spirit
Realization is not possible without clearly focusing on Purusha(Supreme).This means distinguishing HIM from Prakriti becomes absolute must.
Prakriti means gunas and their instruments, and evolutes. The liberation is distinguishing these from the Soul, in daily observation of scenes and acts of ours and others.