(Revision 02 Oct 20 09)
Sri Bhagavan said:
13. 1 This body is termed as Field, and he who knows it is called Khsetrajna(knower of the field) by the sages discerning truth about both.
13. 2 Know Myself to be the Kshetrajna (individual soul) also in all the Kshetras. It is the Knowledge of Kshetra and Khsetrajna which I consider Wisdom
13. 3 What the Kshetra is and what it is like, and also what are its evolutes, again, whence is what, and finally who that Kshetrajna is and what is his glory – hear all this from ME in nutshell.
Purusha and Prakriti
The Universe divided clearly into two divisions, The Field and the Knower(of field).
This knowledge Lord says is real Knowledge
He is going to tell in totality, that Knowledge
On the face of it, what is great about knowing what is called the field, something so ordinary and who does not know it. That's why the next shlokas.
13. 4 The truth about the Kshetra and the Kshetrajna has been expounded by the seers in manifold ways; again, it has been separately stated in different Vedic chants and also in the conclusive and reasoned texts of the Brahmasutras.
13. 5 The five elements, the ego, intellect, the Unmanifest, the ten organs of ( perception and action), the mind, the five objects of sense(sound, sight, touch, taste and smell)
13. 6 Also desire, aversion, pleasure, pain, the physical body, consciousness, firmness: thus is the Kshetra, with its evolutes.
Kshetra and its evolutes:
This knowledge has been expounded in various scriptures. Only when we read them we will know what is being said about here. Or else, our understanding remains somewhat incomplete.
The 5 elements(Akasa, Air, Fire,Water Earth), Ego, Intellect, Mind the ten organs (of perception and action), the five objects of senses,and the unmanifest prakriti, Total:24
Evolutes of Prakriti: Desire, aversion, pleasure, pain, the physical body, consciousness, firmness.
Kshetra still does not become more than an explanation of some of the things which we already know
Hence a different way of telling what are the signs that you have understood it all, is told in the following shlokas which say the qualities of a man who has understood it.
The clue is in Verse 13.4
13. 7 Absence of pride, freedom from hypocrisy, non-violence, forbearance, straightness of body, speech and mind, devout service of the preceptor, internal and external purity, steadfastness of mind and control of body, mind and the senses
13. 8 Dispassion towards the objects of enjoyment of this world and the next, and also absence of egotism, pondering on the pain and evils inherent in birth, death, old age and disease.
13. 9 Absence of attachment and the feeling of mineness in respect of son, wife, home, etc, and constant equipoise of mind both in favorable and unfavorable circumstances.
13. 10 Unflinching devotion to ME through exclusive attachment, living in secluded and holy places, and finding no enjoyment in the company of men.
13. 11 Fixity in knowledge and seeing God as the object to true knowledge: all this is declared as knowledge, and what is other than this is called ignorance
Characteristics of Knowledge:
Pride: have to fall, like water from higher level to down. No exception. The greater the sadhana, the quicker the reminder. Pride is like evergrowing weed. we are proud of wealth, health, beauty, youth, connections, high birth, Type of Visa, of Passport, stupid possessions, of children, their achievements from nursery class to Harvard PhD. Pride occupies a proud place in our life everywhere! It is not easy to find a thing of which we are not proud of.
Hypocrisy: Showing what we are really not. Can't afford to pay service charges for Lexus/Merc bought(on instalments!), but have to show off, I have Lexus/Merc. Result of inferiority complex. showing the knowledge which we do not have, or sadhana which we do not practice.
Non-violence: Basic idea is not having hatred, ill-will, not wanting to hurt. But, pragmatism is a must. Look at termite and insect eliminators, eaters of plants, roots, or fruits, soldiers, police, Home minister, defence minister, collector, Traffic police, executioner, all these have to do their job which may look violent; but in the larger interest of society, necessary. Soft belly is not non-violence. A king needs to be necessarily cruel- Chanakya niti. When the population is large, capital and harsh punitive punishment even for small crimes becomes necessary (Broken window theory of Newyork, where bigger crimes fell drastically after applying this for petty crimes). Non violence is not for govt to use, Gandhiji wisely used it against a powerful Govt. He did not say we should not have army or police, or traffic police. Understand that even if 950 people are satvik and good, 10-50 lawbreakers can create chaos in society.
Forbearance: Good, but need to be practical in application. For Sanyasis, sadhakas a must, but not for Govt, police, Principals, Headmasters, judges. Those who are on this path of Self Realization, especially when above 60yrs and retired, time to practice total forbearance. If you are a full time sadhaka, and no more interested inthe world, and are not messing up in the world's affairs, and live in a secluded place, do not read news papers, watch TV, forbearance is for you. But if you adminstratively-head a spiritual mission, forbearance is to be applied only where absolutely necessary. If you are a new daughter in law or retired mother in law, older couple depending on children, forbearance is for you.
Straight forwardness in speech, mind and Body: Only for sadhakas who are retired. You have to speak sweetly, but check your motive; It needs to be clean, devoid of cheating, selfishness. Read Puranas, scriptures: how politely the good people in those scriptures speak. Some of us confuse our own rudeness to frankness. a word or speech that hurts is worse than bleeding wound.
Service to Guru: Major way to eliminate or subdue ego. No point in imagining that Acharyas are your Guru; they are dead and Gone. and those who have lakhs of followers likes you can accept as your Guru for they do not get time to either meet you or for subduing your ego. We can happily live with now a bigger ego, feeling - I am a follower of so and so. Accept someone closer to you as your Guru who can chastise you. Husband? or wife? whoever is spiritually higher than you. It is necessary for a guru to be in Brahmanishta(and not in Jagat-nishta) and also well versed in scriptures.
Purity: External is for calming our mind. 'I took bath'. 'Now I am clean'. Internal purity comes of continuous noble thoughts and nobler deeds. Keep company(by daily reading) of noble puranic characters, saints. The mind needs to be purged of bad notions, evil thoughts, and worldly desires.
Control of body, mind and senses: Once liberation becomes the goal, reading scriptures convinces the need for a regulated life, which means self control.
Absence of egotism: Egotism is talking about I and me; Ah! no point in meeting such people , you say.
What made Siddhartha to leave his palace and go in search of truth. Constant reflection on the inherent pain and suffering in birth, disease, old age, and death will make us reflect- what this is all about.
Absence of attachment to wife, son, and home: More difficult to come out of these attachment. If wife wants to practice non-attachment, husband won't allow her and vice versa. Possessive instincts. play of ego. Children and home are generally secondary and yet they cast a powerful moha on the mind from which we will escape only when those very children cheat, hurt, neglect, abuse us.
Equipoise of mind: Desires, expectations, when not met likely to shatter our poise.
Exclusive devotion: Got to choose one: worldly enjoyment or God; both cannot go together.
Living in secluded places: The relationship with the Lord is and has to be personal to start with. This is possible only if he remains away from the crowd of friends and relatives.
Finding no enjoyment in the company of men: crowds, groups of people are generally mobilized by desire to enjoy or to gain something from the other. The exception, (to some extent), to these are the satsangh groups, where you learn how to connect ourselves to Lord.
Fixity in the spiritual knowledge and all the above are called Knowledge. Anything contrary is called ignorance.
The above 16 points are simple explanation of each point that describes knowledge. The meaning becomes clearer once we start developing these qualities.
Out of 16 points there is one point which is most important. Clue: If you have that, all automatically follows.
13. 12 I shall speak to you at length about that which ought to be known, and knowing which one attains Supreme Bliss. That Supreme Brahman, who is the lord of beginning-less entities said to be neither Sat (being)nor Asat(non-being)
13. 13 It has hands and feet on all sides, eyes, head and mouth in all directions, and ears all-round; for it pervades all in the universe.
13. 14 Though perceiving all sense objects, devoid of senses. Nay, though unattached, it is the sustain-er of all;none the less; though attribute-less, it is the enjoyer of all qualities(the three modes of Prakriti)
13. 15 It exists without and within all beings; constitutes the animate and inanimate creation as well; And by reason of its subtlety, it is incomprehensible; it is close at hand and stands afar too.
13. 16 Though integral like space in its undivided aspect, it appears divided as it were in all animate and inanimate beings. And that Godhead, which is the only object worth knowing, is the sustainer of beings(Vishnu), the destroyer(Rudra) and the creator of all(Brahma)
13. 17 That Supreme (Brahman) is said to be the light of all lights, and entirely beyond Maya. That Godhead is knowledge itself. Worth knowing, and worth attaining through real wisdom, and is particularly seated in the heart of all.
13. 18 Thus the truth of the Kshetra, and Knowledge, as well as the object worth knowing God, has been briefly discussed; knowing this in reality, My devotee enters into My being.
THE INDESCRIBABLE IS DESCRIBED !
The Supreme is being(Sat) as well non-being(Asat). He is called HE, but HE can also be SHE, or IT
He has hands, feet, eyes ears, mouths etc on all side and in all direction. In other words, his any sense organ, located at any spot in the entire universe, can do the work of all other organs. Nothing can escape him. He is the only one who cannot be cheated for he is also in the very heart and mind of the cheater as witness.
He observes all the sense objects and yet does not have senses.
Lord is without any attributes and yet enjoys the prakriti (residing in beings)
Though unattached, HE sustains all, and the universe too.
We know HE is within all beings. He is also without all beings
In other words, though integral (undivided single) and stands divided in animate and inanimate beings
HE is so close to us. HE is our mind our soul, our glory, our austerity, our intellect, our strength,. and our greatness. HE is so far from us(from our thoughts) that HE is unreachable
Again HE is so subtle, HE becomes unreachable to our (desire ridden, and world drenched,) intellect.
HE is the highest goal. So high, HE becomes the only One worth attaining.
Since HE is seated in the heart of us, HE gives us ample clues to achieve HIM
Again a lot of simple words
It is a puzzle till you solve it.
13. 19 Prakriti and Purusha, know both these as beginning-less. And know all modifications such as likes and dislikes etc., and all objects constituted of three Gunas as born of Prakriti.
13. 20 Prakriti is said to be responsible for bringing forth the evolutes and the instruments; while the individual Soul is declared to be the cause of experience of joys and sorrows.
13. 21 Only the Purusha seated in Prakriti, sense objects (of the nature of the three Gunas) that is responsible for the birth of this soul in good and evil wombs.
13. 22 The Spirit dwelling in this body is really the same as the Supreme. HE has been spoken off as the Witness, the true Guide, the Sustainer of all, the Experiencer(as the embodied Soul), Overlord and the Absolute as well.
Prakriti and Purusha are beginning less, why? It is like asking the origin of the universe, presuming that it began in time. We are accustomed to think everything must begin somewhere in time. We have been conditioned to think like that. Need not be. Just like the Lord(Soul) is beginning-less, Prakriti is also beginning-less. If Time is an illusion, how can there be a beginning and end ?
The gunas of prakriti are Satwa,(Light) Rajas,(activity) and tamas(Darkness)
Prakriti brings forth instruments(organs of perception, action, mind, intellect) and evolutes(desire aversion etc) and the Purusha(Soul) enjoys or suffers(mistakenly, taking Himself to be in bondage) joys and sorrows.
This identification, bringing desires etc causes rebirth in good and bad wombs
The Soul in the body is same as the Supreme. He is called Witness, Guide, Experiencer etc. The Individual Soul imagines HE is Jiva-one who is in bondage. HE finds HIS real identity of being Supreme, when HE wakes up to Knowledge.
13. 23 He who thus knows the Purusha (Spirit) and Prakriti (Nature) together with the Gunas- even though performing his duties in every way, is never born again
Mr Obama was an ordinary citizen amidst 330 mn citizens(like the soul not identifiable amidst prakriti)
When he became the Senator, he found he is no longer an ordinary citizen. Although limited, yet he had powers, he could control, and he could do many things (The Man realizes HE is the Soul with special qualities, different from 330mn ordianry citizens who are like a mass of prakriti or Nature)
With (Evolutes of Prakriti) the goal, plan of action, efforts, using resources, Mr Obama now became the President of USA and found Himself with vast powers.(The soul realizes that he is the Supreme) He is now completely different from anyone in the world.(The Supreme Commander of the world's most powerful country) Yet he was/is also the citizen ( was the individual soul)
He got the full knowledge that this is the highest achievable. HE is Supreme. He need not seek anymore, job(Thew soul he is not born again). As a President or ex President he, like Jimmy Carter, can do social service, but will not be affected by that(The name, fame and money etc does not now bind him, for he has achieved it all.)
13. 24 Some by meditation behold the Supreme Spirit in the heart with the help of their refined and sharp intellect; others realize it through the discipline of Knowledge, and others again, through the discipline of Action
13. 25 Other dull-witted persons however, not knowing thus, worship even as they have heard from others; even those who are thus devoted to hearing, are able to cross the ocean of mundane existence in the shape of death.
By meditation: You observe the mind running after objects (which it keeps creating every second) and start looking at those objects as witness, without getting attached and bring back the mind on the Lord.
Thus the mind is sharpened by divesting it of all desires, expectations, pairs of opposites.
The sharpened intellect now focused only on Lord, wanting only HIM, attains to Him
Some follow the Jnana yoga(where you start observing each action of yours, reject doership assigning those actions to gunas of prakriti,) attain to the Knowledge of Reality
Some others Karma yoga (renouncing doership and fruit of actions)
Others take to worship hearing from others.
Everyone reaches HIM
Dinner at 7 stars for some, udupi hotels for others, dabha for yet others, roadside pav-bhaji for the poor. and Yet all get their stomach full and belch happily
13. 26 Whatsoever being animate or inanimate, is born, know it as emanated from the union of Kshetra(Matter) and Kshetrajna(Spirit)
13. 27 He alone truly sees, who sees the Supreme Lord as the Imperishable and abiding equally in all perishable beings, both animate and inanimate.
If something is born, it must be by combination of Purusha and Prakriti.(for the soul, as jiva(boy or girl), must have body(instrument) and evolutes(toys) to function/live (play)
One who sees the Supreme, in all beings, sees. Here the focus is on Supreme.
Like the focus of the fond parent who sees (only) his child playing amidst hundreds of school children.
13. 28 For he who kills not himself by himself, by seeing the Supreme Lord, equally present in all, as one, thereby reaches the Supreme state
13. 29 And he alone really sees, who sees all actions being performed in everyway by Prakriti, and Self as the non-doer
Human life's main goal is Realization. If one does not attempt that, he is committing suicide. That's why suicide is a crime. there is other reason ! the vast population including some most lawyers and judges is not aware why suicide is a crime. Why should I not commit suicide? It is my life ! The only reason that gives a right to interfere is the highest interest of the man himself, so that he might not lose a chance to realize. We can clearly see now, from Gita point of view, 99% are anyway committing suicide only since their life has been wasted.
Who acts? say commits suicide? not the soul, but gunas of Prakriti. Soul is only a witness. It is the Gunas that prompt the Body, mind, and intellect which are again instruments of Prakriti that commit this act, as they committed all other acts prompted by gunas. The soul is the witness, enjoyer and sufferer(in ignorance of Himself)
13. 30 The moment man perceives the diversified existence of beings as rooted in the one Supreme Spirit, and the spreading forth of all beings from the same, that very moment he attains Brahman(who is Truth ,Consciousness and Bliss)
This is the real meaning of Unity in diversity. This phrase we have come across and we understood in some sense, say all Indians are same in culture, thoughts, although diverse, we are having something same to unite us. That something same is this Supreme who is there in all. No need for a good man to throw overboard in befriending a criminal. Leave that job for great social reformers like S S Ravi Shankar or Kiran Bedi
Ordinary mortals have to see how the soul bound by Gunas(tamas and Rajas) of Prakriti propel the man to criminal acts.
The very perception of seeing Lord in all beings that moment the seer attains to Brahman. Once this knowledge is obtained the next step is to keep practicing this daily in all activities as practicable.
13. 31 Without beginning and without attributes, this indestructible Supreme Spirit, though dwelling in the body, in fact does nothing, nor gets contaminated.
13. 32 As the all pervading ether is not by reason of its subtlety, so seated everywhere in the body, the Self is not affected by the attributes of the body due to its attriubuteless character.
13. 33 As the one sun illumines this entire Universe, so the one Atma(Spirit) illumines the whole Kshetra(Field)
It is clear now, that the Soul has
does nothing, no action
does not get contaminated, even though seated everywhere
and yet illuminates the whole Kshetra means life pulsates the whole field
13. 34 Those who thus perceive with the eye of wisdom the difference between the Kshetra and Kshetrajna, and the phenomenon of liberation from Prakriti with her evolutes, reach the supreme eternal Spirit
Realization is not possible without clearly focusing on Purusha(Supreme).This means distinguishing HIM from Prakriti becomes absolute must.
Prakriti means gunas and their instruments, and evolutes. The liberation is distinguishing these from the Soul, in daily observation of scenes and acts of ours and others.