(Revision 08 Sep 25 09)
BHAGAVAD GITA (Verses 1-35 )
CHAPTER 18 Moksha Sanyasa Yoga (Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation)
Sri Bhagavan said:
RENUNCIATION (TYAGA) AND SANYASA
18. 1 Arjuna asks: " I would like to know the inner principle of Renunciation and Sanyasa
18. 2 The Lord says: The wise understand sanyasa as giving up desire prompted actions, and renunciation as giving up fruit of all actions.
18. 3 Some say actions contain defects hence need to be given up. Others say that acts of sacrifice, charity, austerity should not be given up.
18. 4 Here my conclusion on renunciation:It is said to be of three kinds (Satvik, Rajasik and Tamasik)
18. 5 Sacrifice, Charity and Austerity are not be given up. They purify men
These verses are for worldly people. Those who are sanyasis (those taken to nivratti path) generally give up all desire prompted actions, and also give up fruit of any mandatory actions they do for their mere survival
The 3 kinds of Renunciation(Verse 18.4) are applicable to the worldly people (those on pravratti path). The entire chapter, shows us the need to take to Satvik renunciation which alone gives the platform from which liberation can take place. Pure anthah-karana(inner instruments mind, intellect) is pre requisite for liberation.
Actions should not be given up. The exception to this are Avadhutas who have renounced the world from their consciousness (BG 3-18, BG18-17). Those other realized souls who have kept the world in their consciousness for the purposes of functioning in the world, they act as shreshtas to lead ignorant(BG 3-22 )
For majority of non realized souls with high satvik mind, yajna, dana, tapa etc are to purify their minds, develop in them the vairagya or renunciation and eventual realization which dawns on them when they have 100% satva. Satva is not only a quality, it is also Knowledge, clarity of perception, experience of bliss, a cessation of all desires, a combination of sama dama, uparati, titiksha, shraddha,samadhana, mumuksatwa, Vairagya, samadhi.
Since Satvika mode is absolutely essential, the entire chapter divides our nature, behaviour etc into three modes and points out to us clearly what is satvika way thinking , doing, behaving, enjoying etc.
The study of Rajasika and Tamasika natures below is to guide us to eschew those traits from us and wish, will, pray for Satvika mode only all the time.
The ciritcism of psuedo intellectuals, educated ignoramsus is to bring home the point that, modern education does not teach the Ultimate.
18. 6 These and other acts of duty need to be done giving up fruits and attachment
18. 7 Prescribed duties should not be renounced. Renouncing in ignorance is Tamasika
18. 8 Renouncing for fear of physical strain, thinking them painful, is Rajasika renunication, does not get fruit of tyaga.
18. 9 Performing prescribed work, as a duty, giving up attachment and fruit, is alone the Satvika form of Tyaga
We are duty bound! Duty has bound us and there is no escape. So, do duty the satvika way
In day to day matters when we want to avoid work, just introspect to find whether it is your duty. Do it without grumbling and happily.
Without attachment means disintersted in work, but not in any uninterested way
18.10 Not disliking unpleasant work, nor attached to pleasant work, imbued with goodness, his doubts resolved, is intelligent and person of true renunciation.
18.11 One in body cannot cannot entirely give up all actions, one who gives up fruit of actions is Tyagi
In verse 18.10, two words akushala and kushala work are given. We invariably like and dislike some works. Every body wants to be a manager director, pujari, chief, assistant to PM. These places you can have power, position and order people around. The boss has ears only for you. Who wants to work in a lessor position where no one meets you. He is intelligent in the spiritual sense who remains unattached to work that is materially important, but keeps his mind on satvik way of working. If I am not chief, I don't play - not in spiritual matters. and yet there are swamis and pravachankars, who will not give up their chair, despite age, infirmity, and being out of date!
Now a days when most of the ladies are also bread earners, it becomes the duty of their husband to do equal amount of work at home. However, males make use of prehistoric law of Manu and shastras to make ladies work at home. Some even make their wives get up at 4 am to prepare fresh meals every day because the Lord need to be offered fresh food, without realizing that HE sent the refrigerator to reduce the burdon on the ladies. On the other hand shastras mention stree-dhanam(earnings of a lady) should not be touched, but we make use of it. and on the days of her manstrual cycle, you still expect her to cook and serve you. This is like the temples where despite electric tubelights we still have those poisonous carbon monoxide and dioxide throwing firelamps because shastras mention lighting the lamps. But mercedes for pontifs was not mentioned in shastras, why we use them?
In short, daily observe yourself where you are slipping because it is convenient for you. With all good intentions you are torturing your spouse, and servents who are under your protection. To protect, and treat them fairly is your duty.
18.12 Agreeable, disagreeable, and mixed is the threefold fruit of actions after death for those who do not renounce. But none for those who have renounced all fruits.
18.13 Five factors have been mentioned in Sankhya, for the accomplishment of all actions. Know them from ME.
18.14 The body,the doer, the organs of different kinds, varieties of different functions, and destiny here is fifth one. 18.15 These five are the causes of actions, good or bad, which man performs with his body mind and speech.
18.16 One who wrongly sees soul as the only doer is of perverse understanding.
If soul is the doer, we should never have had ego problems. In fact, all our problems with people seem to be ego related.
18.17 One free from sense of doer ship, intellect detached, even if he kills these worlds, he is not bound
If one understands this verse, one has understood principle of karma. The karma world operates infallibly. Wrong or right whatever one does gets the reward in this world or the next. In such a world justice is always done by karmic laws. It is only when you do not agree to see the worlds of rebirth, the problem of seeming injustice appears to the ignorant and the adamant non-believer. Centuries ago, the pseudo intellectuals of those times did not believe that earth was moving round the sun, and that a flying machine(aeroplane) was a possibility.
The adamant attitude comes because of resistance to change, lack of knowledge and a feeling that our intellect can grasp and understand everything in this world. Let's see whether anyone can explain how such a huge mass of earth remains for millions of years circles round the sun that too elliptical. What is really gravity, electricity? Go to the root of these and you will find all explanations to-date are like saying really nothing. We have simply accepted their explanations, for we have been brainwashed to believe anything that comes from scientists.
Once we know that ahimsa relates to only this dimension called waking world, it loses its sting.
What happens to the victims of violence, say animals? who does justice to the 10 billion land animals who are slaughtered each year for satisfying our taste buds. Retribution by karmic laws take place. The eater now becomes the eaten and the eaten becomes the slaughterer. You may prevent for a while world wars, but hatred, violence, terrorism all born of selfishness cannot be eliminated.
Once people are convinced of the truth of Karmic law, people as a rule will have fear of consequences and are likely to walk on the path of good behaviour.
We have not given rights for animals to live their life. We have eliminated tigers and other species by our greed. We are excavating the earth of its super-precious and never replaceable resources and using them worse than wastrels. To such uncivilized, obnoxious, merciless, mercenaries should the Nature or Lord be merciful to them?
If one does not have selfish motive and no sense of doer-ship, his whatever job he does is immaterial.
18.18 Knower, Knowledge, and object of Knowledge, these three prompt action. The doer, organs, activity three constituents of action
18.19 Knowledge,action and doer are three kinds according to Guna which predominates in each. Hear from ME.
JNANA - KNOWLEDGE
18.20 That Knowledge is Satvika which sees one imperishable as undivided in all beings
18.21 Knowledge by which man cognizes many different existences in all beings know that knowledge is to be Rajasika
18.22 The irrational Knowledge, which is not true, which clings to one body as if it were the whole, is Tamasika
Verse 18.20 says one Imperishable is there undivided in all beings. That is what is meant by Lord is Omnipresent. That is what all major religions seem to say. HE is Omnipresent, hence also HE is Omnipotent and Omniscient.
Difference in religions is mostly superficial and quarrels are always out of ignorance, and motivated by self interest
18.21 shows lack of knowledge of scriptures. Clearly our so called educated ignoramus belong here
18.22 Pseudo intellectuals adamantly not agreeing with scriptures belong here. Waste of life to convince these.
KARMA - ACTION
18.23 Duty done unattached, without doer-ship or aversion, seeking nothing in return, is called Satvika
18.24 Action involving much strain, done with ego, and with desire, is Rajasika
18.25 Tamasika, is action through ignorance, regardless of consequences, loss to oneself, and one's own resources.
1. 18.23 is similar to 3.17-19 and 18.17 and some others
DOER - ONE WHO ACTS
18.26 Unattached, unegoistic, firm, with zeal, unswayed by success or failure, such a doer is Satvika
18.27 Full of attachment, seeking fruit of actions, greedy, violent, unclean, passionate is called Rajasika doer.
18.28 Lacking piety and self control, uncultured, arrogant,deceitful, robbing others of their livelihood,lazy, despondent, procrastinating is Tamasika doer
Satvika doer is now a vanishing species. mainly because those who study gita are rare, practice is rarer & this..:)
It is not so hopeless a situation, almost all of us have still these two categories left :) contemplate on each word. and start applying it, but judiciously. Nothing sudden, or foolish. Take time for progress.
Knowledge of the scriptures will promote us to Satvika, if we keep reading these verses
18.29 Now hear, the threefold division, of Buddhi and dhriti, based on predominance of each Guna
18.30 Satvika buddhi correctly understands paths of pravratthi(bondage) and nivratthi(renunciation), what should and should not be done, what is fear and fearlessness, what is bondage and what is liberation
18.31 Rajasika buddhi is that by which man does not see what is dharma and what is adharma, what ought to be done and what should not be done.
18.32 Tamasika intellect, that which is wrapped in ignorance, sees even adharma as dharma, sees all things upside down
18.30 This verse is for daily contemplation. This is the knowledge required for practice.
18.31,32 Educated ignoramus, pseudo intellectuals, corrupt and warped minds fall into this category. The study of these qualities is to eschew them from our system and avoid any discussion with such people.
Subhashitas classify people into Sat-janas(satvikas), and Dur-janas(Rajasikas and Tamasikas). Repeated subhashitas advise us to avoid durjanas; hundreds of verses tell us the qualities of durjanas. End of education is Character. Lot of asuras were educated and pundits too. Not only university degrees, but those who have book knowledge of Vedas and do not stand to practice, or those who give pravachans, have money earning from that as motive, such people are to be considered durjanas only. That the Great Prakriti makes use of these for its good purpose is a different matter. The British engineer who built in mumbai, VT railway Station building was triple more corrupt than previous engineers. Yet the bldg is so good it stood for 2 centuries and continues to do so. Nature made use of him. Same is the case of Taj Mahal. Our greed is the bait kept by nature to get its work done. Pravachankars or Pundits who teach are no exceptions. Nature will make use of them, to benefit mass.
You and I will be made use of by Nature. What bait it will use for us?
18.33 The unwavering dhriti(firmness) by which one controls by yoga functions of mind, prana and senses is Satvika
18.34 The dhriti by which one clings with extreme fondness to dharma, artha, kama, seeking rewards is Rajasika
18.35 The dhriti by which an evil minded does not give up sleep, fear, anxiety, sorrow and pride is Tamasika
In our world of TV, News papers we come across a few of the satvika type. The Rajasika type who seek rewards are the vast majority. The evil minded durjanas who are bent upon harming others, the Tamasika type are also a huge number.
Dhriti or fortitude, determination, courage, strength are good although qualities, the motive and knowledge with which they are used classifies them into good bad and worse categories.
SATVA GUNA EXPLAINED:
(9) Performing prescribed work, as a duty, giving up attachment and fruit, is alone the Satvika form of Tyaga
(10) Not disliking unpleasant work, nor attached to pleasant work, imbued with goodness, his doubts resolved, is intelligent and person of true renunciation.
(20) That Knowledge is Satvika which sees one imperishable as undivided in all beings
(23) Duty done unattached, without doer-ship or aversion, seeking nothing in return, is called Satvika
(26) Unattached, unegoistic, firm, with zeal, unswayed by success or failure, such a doer is Satvika
(30) Satvika buddhi correctly understands paths of pravratthi(bondage) and nivratthi(renunciation), what should and should not be done, what is fear and fearlessness, what is bondage and what is liberation
(33)The unwavering dhriti(firmness) by which one controls by yoga functions of mind, prana and senses is Satvika
RAJO GUNA EXPLAINED:
(8) Renouncing for fear of physical strain, thinking painful, is Rajasika renunciation, does not get fruit of tyaga.
(21) Knowledge by which man cognizes many different existences in all beings that knowledge is to be Rajasika
(24)Action involving much strain, done with ego, and with desire, is Rajasika
(27) Full of attachment, seeking fruit of actions, greedy, violent, unclean, passionate is called Rajasika doer.
(31) Rajasika buddhi is that by which man does not see what is dharma and what is adharma, what ought to be done and what should not be done.
(34)The dhriti by which one clings with extreme fondness to dharma, artha, kama, seeking rewards is Rajasika
TAMO GUNA EXPLAINED
(7) Prescribed duties should not be renounced. Renouncing in ignorance is Tamasika
(22) The irrational Knowledge, which is not true, which clings to one body as if it were the whole, is Tamasika
(25) Tamasika, is action in ignorance, regardless of consequence, loss to oneself, one's own resourcefulness.
(28) Lacking piety and self control, uncultured, arrogant,deceitful, robbing others of their livelihood,lazy, despondent, procrastinating is Tamasika doer
(32) Tamasika intellect, that which is wrapped in ignorance, sees even adharma as dharma, sees all things upside down
(35) The dhriti by which an evil minded does not give up sleep, fear, anxiety, sorrow and pride is Tamasika
SUMMING UP THE GUNAS:
Going through the above three gunas, check whether as satsanghis and devotees , despite our fondness to our reckless imagination of our being satvik, are we really? Satva gunas show, in spite of our being 'born chit-paavan', it is only like the tilak, yajnopavit, we wear, just symbols beyond which we are only in tamas.
We can clearly see the world around us, from most educated, even in sanskrit, is dominated by tamas and rajas
Nothing to feel depressed. Only understand (BG 7-3) that there is plenty room near the Lord!
Our foremost duty is to go within(BG 5-21) ignore the seemingly turbulant, but non existing world outside.
Eschew all rajasic and tamasic thoughts. No place in Brahman, for our shortcomings,(BG 5-19). (I know we are fond our dislikes, sentimentality, greed, anger, irritation, my child and my grandchild etc -this 'my' has no place there :).
Verses 18-36 to 78 on another sheet....Contd